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©2013 Reduce Security Risk in Your Development Part III: Secure Code Review #SecureDev Trent R. Hein, CCIE, CISSP, ISSMP, ISSAP, CSSA
©2013 What We’ll Cover Today Recap of Secure Agile Development key topics How does secure code review fit in an Agile workflow? Code review documentation Tips & Tricks #SecureDev
©2013 How is Secure Agile Development Different? Distinct security-focused project phases, often at beginning and end of project. Security skills brought in from outside project, often disconnected from dev/test resources. Specific security testing phase, often at end of project. Agile Traditional/ Waterfall Every iteration considers security, but is not limited by it. Every team member is responsible for security. Security skills are embedded in the team. Hybrid security and functionality testing, throughout project. Security Timing Security Resources Security Validation
©2013 Secure Agile Development Guiding Principles Product value improves with security. Security is integral to the product, not an afterthought. Outside security resources (standards, threats, experts) provide background, not a cage.
©2013 Our Secure Code Review Motto It’s not done until it’s provably secure.
©2013 The Last Puzzle Piece: Code Review
©2013 Why do we perform code review? Detect potential issues early More effective than post-completion vulnerability testing One layer of defense-in-depth “Inside the barn” viewpoint
©2013 What code review is and isn’t Code review is.. A great opportunity for everyone to learn One component of a complete secure lifecycle strategy Difficult to do consistently and well Essential to modern-day development teams Code review isn’t.. Foolproof An opportunity to discredit your co- workers Personal A checkbox
©2013 Secure code review high-level steps 1.Review Agile Threat Map for the product 2.Review the code for the security tests relevant to the user story/task –Ensure the code for the tests verify both the desired functionality, and the lack of undesired functionality (from a security standpoint) –Execute test code against a known noop/broken module –Execute test code against “good” module 3.Review code repo diffs for possible areas of weakness
©2013 Why write/execute tests first? Provable security Builds a lifetime of security (and value!) into the product –Ensures future changes don’t negate security controls Removes significant subjectivity from secure review process
©2013 Reviewers: Pair programming environment In pair programming environment, the pair members can review each other’s code Best practice is one writes the tests, one writes the module code Pairs should rotate frequently (not just for secure code review reasons!)
©2013 Reviewers: Non-Pair Programmers In non-paired programming, another qualified coder on the team should act as the reviewer –This is a dedicated coder, not a dedicated security person If possible, qualified coder should be selected randomly For extremely small teams, consider trading review services with an external team
©2013 Tool-assisted review Lots of great tools out there! Keep in mind that automated tools catch only a small percentage of security vulnerabilities Even with a tool, you should be performing test- driven development, testing, and review by qualified coders
©2013 Code review pitfalls Don’t perform secure code review outside of iterations –As tempting as this may be, this forms a habit that security can be deferred –It’s not “done” until it’s secure Make sure reviewers are always “fresh” –Frequent rotation of programming pairs –Randomized selection of non-paired reviewers Make sure reviewers understand what they are looking at –If it’s just a checkbox, you’re missing the point Perform reviews in context –Review Agile Threat Map before each review session Don’t code/excuse security workarounds –If another layer/module is the problem, schedule a defect to fix it rather than accept “yet another hack”
©2013 Documenting Code Review Every code review step/result should be visible to the team –Transparency is key Code review documentation is important for training and retrospectives No documentation of review? Wasn’t reviewed.
©2013 Managing code review in Rally VIDEO HERE
©2013 But.. How do we know what to look for when performing code review??
©2013 Issues to watch for.. Authentication Require authentication for all pages/resources, except those specifically intended to be public All authentication controls must be enforced on a trusted system (e.g., The server) Establish and utilize standard, tested, authentication services whenever possible All administrative and account management functions must be at least as secure as the primary authentication mechanism If your application manages a credential store, it should ensure that only cryptographically strong one-way salted hashes of passwords are stored and that the table/file that stores the passwords and keys is write-able only by the application. (Do not use the MD5 algorithm if it can be avoided)
©2013 Issues to watch for.. Session Mgmt Use the server or framework’s session management controls. The application should only recognize these session identifiers as valid Session identifier creation must always be done on a trusted system (e.g., The server) Session management controls should use well vetted algorithms that ensure sufficiently random session identifiers Logout functionality should fully terminate the associated session or connection Disallow persistent logins and enforce periodic session terminations, even when the session is active. Especially for applications supporting rich network connections or connecting to critical systems. Termination times should support business requirements and the user should receive sufficient notification to mitigate negative impacts.
©2013 Issues to watch for.. Data Protection Implement least privilege, restrict users to only the functionality, data and system information that is required to perform their tasks. Protect all cached or temporary copies of sensitive data stored on the server from unauthorized access and purge those temporary working files a soon as they are no longer required. Encrypt highly sensitive stored information, like authentication verification data, even on the server side. Always use well vetted algorithms. Protect server-side source-code from being downloaded by a user. Do not store passwords, connection strings or other sensitive information in clear text or in any non-cryptographically secure manner on the client side.
©2013 Issues to watch for.. General Use tested and approved managed code rather than creating new unmanaged code for common tasks. Utilize task specific built-in APIs to conduct operating system tasks. Do not allow the application to issue commands directly to the Operating System, especially through the use of application initiated command shells. Protect shared variables and resources from inappropriate concurrent access. Explicitly initialize all your variables and other data stores, either during declaration or just before the first usage. Avoid calculation errors by understanding your programming language's underlying representation and how it interacts with numeric calculation.
©2013 Issues to watch for.. See these, and many more, great ideas of issues to watch for in the OWASP Secure Coding Practices Quick Reference Guide available at https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Secur e_Coding_Practices_-_Quick_Reference_Guide
©2013 Quick recap Secure code review should be grounded in: –1. Agile Threat Map –2. Test Driven Development Code reviewers always need to be FRESH and CAPABLE Results of code review should always be documented, even if “no issues” Need ideas what to look for? Use available resources such as OWASP for ideas.
©2013 Questions? Contact me: #SecureDev
©2013 Sign-up : agilewebinars
©2013 Go Agile. Go Rally. #SecureDev
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