Presentation on theme: "I. General Concepts of Cellular Respiration A.Glucose bonds are broken apart. O CH 2 OH OH H H H H CO 2 Where Does it Go? “Metabolic water” Bonds (Electrons)"— Presentation transcript:
I. General Concepts of Cellular Respiration A.Glucose bonds are broken apart. O CH 2 OH OH H H H H CO 2 Where Does it Go? “Metabolic water” Bonds (Electrons) ADP Phosphate ATP Lungs H2OH2O Glucose bonds are “exchanged” for ATP bonds C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
B. As bonds are broken, electrons must be released “gradually” to maximize the amount of usable energy extracted from the glucose C. Electron transfers are called Oxidation / Reduction (Redox) reactions Xe-+YYX+ X was oxidized (Lost electrons / lost energy) Y was reduced (gained electrons / gained energy) D. Enzymes control each step by step breakdown of glucose 1. Decarboxylase – removes a carbon atom 2. Kinases - Transfer phosphates with the help of ATP 3. Dehydrogenase – Removes a hydrogen 4. Isomerase - change from one isomer to another
Steps of Glycolysis Part #1 The Investment Phase Energy must be added to glucose Why? Glucose is a stable molecule and the energy of activation must be reached in order to start the reaction How? ATP needs to be added to start the reaction Glucose
ATP ADP Fructose 1,6 biphosphate What kind of enzyme?
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glycerolaldehyde-3-phosphate – G3P PGAL Fructose 1-6-biphosphate is “cleaved” forming two isomers 50% What kind of enzyme?
PGAL Inorganic Phosphate Part #2 Energy Payoff Phase H NAD+ NADH Name of enzyme? ADP ATP ADP ATP Substrate Level Phosphorylation Substrate Level Phosphorylation 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate PGA Pyruvic Acid Name of enzyme? Glycolysis Totals ATP = (1 Glucose = 2 Pyruvates) 2 X 2 = 4 made NADH = - 2 used 2 net 1 X 2 = 2 Glucose Song
Substrate Level Phosphorylation ATP made by direct transfer of a phosphate to ADP from a substrate by an enzyme
Hydrogen Carriers can: 1. Pick up one free hydrogen 2. Pick up 2 high energy electrons 3. Cause the release of a Hydrogen Ion 4. Release 2 high energy electrons to the ETC Nicotinamide Adenosine Dinucleotide Electrons carried to the ETC (Baggage) (Passengers) (No place to sit) Niacin (Vitamin B 3) Slide 9 Dropped off at ETC
Glucose, Glucose Written by Jeff Barry and Andy Kim; Scientific lyrics by Greg Crowther Greg: keyboard, tambourine, claps Lori DeGloria: backing vocals Gretchen Ludwig: backing vocals Do: acoustic guitar, bass, drum programming, claps Kirk L. Van Scoyoc: lead vocals From the blood-borne substrate pool. Cause I need you for glycolysis. (For you, they'll open the door.) When my predators are chasing me. 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles break you down. A few more seconds and I'll be rigor mortis-bound. Your sweet is turning sour, baby.I'm gonna make your muscles ache. Yes, I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I'm drowning in lactate, baby. I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I used you up and you left me flat;Now I'll have to get my kicks from fat. The honeymoon is over now. The honeymoon is over now. (To up regulate GLUT4). -- ah, sugar sugar --You are my favorite fuel Glucose --You're sweeter than a woman's kiss I just can't believe the way my muscles take you in. All it takes is a little bit of insulin Ah, glucoseYou help me make ATP you're an aldehyde sugar,And you're sweeter than a woman's kiss (My glycogen is almost gone.) (Acidosis done me wrong.) I'm losing all my power, baby. I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. ah, sugar sugar -- Oh, glucose, glucose, sugar, sugar, No, no, no! No, no, no! Glucose -- monosaccharide sugar -- ah, sugar sugar -- Ah, glucose -- Ah, glucose -- Mike B