Presentation on theme: "I. General Concepts of Cellular Respiration A.Glucose bonds are broken apart. O CH 2 OH OH H H H H CO 2 Where Does it Go? “Metabolic water” Bonds (Electrons)"— Presentation transcript:
I. General Concepts of Cellular Respiration A.Glucose bonds are broken apart. O CH 2 OH OH H H H H CO 2 Where Does it Go? “Metabolic water” Bonds (Electrons) ADP Phosphate ATP Lungs H2OH2O Glucose bonds are “exchanged” for ATP bonds C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
B. As bonds are broken, electrons must be released “gradually” to maximize the amount of usable energy extracted from the glucose C. Electron transfers are called Oxidation / Reduction (Redox) reactions Xe-+YYX+ X was oxidized (Lost electrons / lost energy) Y was reduced (gained electrons / gained energy) D. Enzymes control each step by step breakdown of glucose 1. Decarboxylase – removes a carbon atom 2. Kinases - Transfer phosphates with the help of ATP 3. Dehydrogenase – Removes a hydrogen 4. Isomerase - change from one isomer to another
Steps of Glycolysis Part #1 The Investment Phase Energy must be added to glucose Why? Glucose is a stable molecule and the energy of activation must be reached in order to start the reaction How? ATP needs to be added to start the reaction Glucose
ATP ADP Glucose-6- phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate What kind of enzyme?
ATP ADP Fructose 1,6 biphosphate What kind of enzyme?
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glycerolaldehyde-3-phosphate – G3P PGAL Fructose 1-6-biphosphate is “cleaved” forming two isomers 50% What kind of enzyme?
PGAL Inorganic Phosphate Part #2 Energy Payoff Phase H NAD+ NADH Name of enzyme? ADP ATP ADP ATP Substrate Level Phosphorylation Substrate Level Phosphorylation 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate PGA Pyruvic Acid Name of enzyme? Glycolysis Totals ATP = (1 Glucose = 2 Pyruvates) 2 X 2 = 4 made NADH = - 2 used 2 net 1 X 2 = 2 Glucose Song
Substrate Level Phosphorylation ATP made by direct transfer of a phosphate to ADP from a substrate by an enzyme
Hydrogen Carriers can: 1. Pick up one free hydrogen 2. Pick up 2 high energy electrons 3. Cause the release of a Hydrogen Ion 4. Release 2 high energy electrons to the ETC Nicotinamide Adenosine Dinucleotide Electrons carried to the ETC (Baggage) (Passengers) (No place to sit) Niacin (Vitamin B 3) Slide 9 Dropped off at ETC
Glucose, Glucose Written by Jeff Barry and Andy Kim; Scientific lyrics by Greg Crowther Greg: keyboard, tambourine, claps Lori DeGloria: backing vocals Gretchen Ludwig: backing vocals Do: acoustic guitar, bass, drum programming, claps Kirk L. Van Scoyoc: lead vocals From the blood-borne substrate pool. Cause I need you for glycolysis. (For you, they'll open the door.) When my predators are chasing me. 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles break you down. A few more seconds and I'll be rigor mortis-bound. Your sweet is turning sour, baby.I'm gonna make your muscles ache. Yes, I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I'm drowning in lactate, baby. I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I used you up and you left me flat;Now I'll have to get my kicks from fat. The honeymoon is over now. The honeymoon is over now. (To up regulate GLUT4). -- ah, sugar sugar --You are my favorite fuel Glucose --You're sweeter than a woman's kiss I just can't believe the way my muscles take you in. All it takes is a little bit of insulin Ah, glucoseYou help me make ATP you're an aldehyde sugar,And you're sweeter than a woman's kiss (My glycogen is almost gone.) (Acidosis done me wrong.) I'm losing all my power, baby. I'm swimming in lactate, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. ah, sugar sugar -- Oh, glucose, glucose, sugar, sugar, No, no, no! No, no, no! Glucose -- monosaccharide sugar -- ah, sugar sugar -- Ah, glucose -- Ah, glucose -- Mike B