Presentation on theme: "CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS"— Presentation transcript:
1CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS Week 8CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS
2Five Primary Categories of Human Rights Civil RightsPolitical RightsEconomic RightsSocial RightsCultural RightsThese five categories are classified in two groups of rightswhich can be found in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (adopted in 1948) and were laid down in twolegally binding international instruments, the InternationalCovenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, adopted in1966) and the International Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, adopted in 1966)
3Practice shows that the different categories of human rights have not developed at anequal level. Compared to civil and politicalrights, the categories of economic, socialand cultural rights are less developed.This is partly due to the fact that economic,social and cultural rights have been seen fora long time as ‘secondary rights’ comparedto civil and political rights
4First Group: Civil and political rights (CPR) Civil and political rights comprise the first portion ofthe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights almostmore than half of the articles address civil and politicalrights.Civil and political rights (classic freedom rights) is agroup of rights which are supposed to be immediatelyguaranteed by governments, protects the individualfrom the misuse of political power and recognize everyindividual’s right to participate in their country’s civiland political process without discrimination.
5Is a personal liberties that belong to an individual, owing Civil rightsIs a personal liberties that belong to an individual, owingto his or her status as a citizen or resident of a particularcountry or community.Civil rights and civil liberties often mean the same thing.The words are frequently used to signify the protection ofrights to liberty and equality under the constitution, suchas freedom of speech, protection against unreasonablesearches.The term civil rights is also used to refer to positiveactions by the government to protect or extend the rightsof people—to provide for individuals or groupsopportunities that were previously denied to them.
6Civil rights may include: Ensuring peoples‘ integrity and safetyProtection from private (non-government)discrimination (based on gender, religion,race, etc.)The right to equality in public places.Equal access to health care, education,culture, etc.
7POLITICAL RIGHTSThe second group in particular the right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right to peaceful assembly and to freedom ofassociation; the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs; and the right to vote and to be elected.
8Political rights include: Natural justice (procedural fairness) in law (such as therights of the accused, including the right of fair trial; dueProcess)Individual political freedom, including rights of theIndividuals (freedom of thought and conscience, freedomof speech and expression, freedom of religion, freedom ofthe press, freedom of movement)The right to participate in civil society and politics(freedom of association, right to assemble, and right tovote)
9Second Group: Economic, Social and cultural rights (ESCR) Economic, Social and cultural rights comprise the second portion of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights.Billions of women, men and children face deprivation levels of right to live with dignity.Hunger, homelessness and diseases are not only because of social problems or simply the result of natural disasters – they are a violation of people’s economic, social and cultural rights.
10Access to justice is an essential right of victims of all human rights violations, but many people around theworld, particularly those living in poverty, have theirrights violated on a daily basis and too often aredenied justice when they try to challenge theseviolations.In many countries, economic, social and culturalrights are not recognized or enforceable by law.Existing remedies may also be ineffective in providingthe maintenance of those rights, includingcompensation to the victims.
11Economic, social and cultural rights protect an individual’s right to access economic, social and cultural aspects of their country; they now occupy an increasingly important place in the legal and political systems of different countries of the world.They are given much attention in the activities of the United Nations and other international organizations.
12Economic, Social and cultural right includes: The right to education, adequate housing, food, water, the highest standard of health, the right to work and rights at work, the cultural rights of minorities, right to social security, the right to protection of – and assistance to the family, mothers and children.