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The Dualism of Human Nature and its Social Conditions

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1 The Dualism of Human Nature and its Social Conditions
The Dualism of Human Nature and its Social Conditions By Emile Durkheim

2 In order to understand Society we must look at the individuals that make it up .

3 Society ..... Produces us “The Whole Produces the Part”
The Macro (society) produces the Micro (individuals) To understand the Whole we must understand the Part or at least say that the Whole (society) produced the Part (individuals)

4 Man is UNIQUE We are civilised and act for the greater good (most of the time) Whilst employing Historical Analysis Durkheim noticed that throughout the ages there has been a ‘Constitutional Duality of Human Nature’

5 Man is made of two radically Heterogeneous Beings...............
THE BODY THE SOUL The Body and Soul are independent of each other, however constantly in conflict. Durkheim uses death to show this independence, where the body is bound by its physicality to stay in the material world whereas the soul can leave the body as its abode is everywhere. (see Plato)

6 This Duality is only a particular example of things being divided into THE SACRED & THE PROFANE
BODY PROFANE SOUL SACRED Duality is at the very heart of our Inner Life

7 Human Intelligence. Sensory Activity Conceptual Thought Egoistic
Unique to Individual Cannot detach sensation from organism Conceptual Thought Can be Shared ‘Held in Common to a plurality of men.’ These two states of consciousness contradict each other. How can we belong to ourselves and others at the same time?

8 The Problem: Society V’s Individual
We all have individual goals and our own ways of getting them however at the same time we are expected to commit to society and conform to the norms and expectations instilled in us by our families at birth. It is biologically natural for us to seek gratification for others (society)

9 Two States of Conciousness
One merely expresses our organisms and the objects around us, it is sensory and we cannot separate ourselves from it . 1 The second originates from society and surpasses, shapes and directs our seemingly random ends 2

10 This continuous battle between the individual and society is eased by sacred activities like religious worship which Durkheim says forms a: Collective Consciousness

11 Summary The Dualism of Haman nature is the continuous battle between our needs as individuals, who percieve things on a very personal level and the society that we live in which requires us to act for the greater good oftern at the expense of our own desires.

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