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Investigate the following Critical Questions: How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified? What are the priority issues for improving Australia’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Investigate the following Critical Questions: How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified? What are the priority issues for improving Australia’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Investigate the following Critical Questions: How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified? What are the priority issues for improving Australia’s health? What role do health care facilities and services play in achieving better health for all Australians? What actions are needed to address Australia’s health priorities?

2 Critical Question Content:  measuring health status -role of epidemiology -measures of epidemiology (mortality, infant mortality, morbidity, life expectancy)  identifying priority health issues -social justice principles -priority population groups -prevalence of condition -potential for prevention and early intervention -costs to the individual and community

3 The Role of Epidemiology Epidemiology is used by governments and health related organisations to obtain a picture of the health status of a population, to identify the patterns of health and disease, and analyse how health services and facilities are being used. What does Epidemiology tell us?  Incidence of morbidity and mortality (how many new cases are occurring). Incidence  Prevalence of morbidity and mortality (how many existing cases are occurring). Prevalence  The extent of the problem.  Factors that are directly linked to morbidity and mortality. What doesn’t epidemiology tell us?  Statistical information tells us little about the severity of illnesses and how this impacts upon a person’s quality of life. It does not identify peoples’ level of distress, impairment, disability or handicap.impairment  Epidemiology data is sometimes lacking on certain health issues for which gathering detailed information is difficult e.g. mental illness.  It doesn’t address the reasons why health inequities exist.  Information is gathered on incidence of disease and death and related risk factors but often neglects other factors such as cultural and economic factors.

4 How do we use epidemiology to improve the health of Australians?  To identify health inequalities between sub-populations.  To establish priorities, enabling efficient use of funds.  To develop preventative programs and monitor health care services.  To monitor and evaluate programs. Who uses Epidemiological measures?  Epidemiology provides valuable scientific information about disease and associated risk factors. It has been useful in providing various health related organisations and associations in providing a basis for investigating issues such as the impact of social, cultural and economic factors that support health or cause disease. As a result, epidemiological data can assist health organisations in establishing a plan of action to address any relevant health concerns within a population.

5 Extension Information Recently health authorities have acknowledged the need to adopt a measurement approach that focuses on the health of populations more than the disease of the individuals. To address inequalities in health we must go beyond the disease and its risk factors to the environmental and social frameworks in which individuals live. The epidemiological process must incorporate a social perspective to identify and combat the leading causes of sickness and death in Australia, and to reduce inequalities in health. To reduce health inequalities, factors such as poor access to health services, low socioeconomic status, attitudes to illness and health promotion, limited education about self-care and health practices must be addressed.

6 Measures of Epidemiology There are four measures of epidemiology: mortality, infant mortality, morbidity and life expectancy.mortalityinfant mortalitymorbiditylife expectancy Mortality Current trends in mortality in the general population of Australia:  Australians who died of cardiovascular disease made up around one-third of all deaths in 2007.  Deaths from heart attacks have decreased.  Deaths from dementia and Alzheimer’s have increased.  Deaths from cancer have increased and represent nearly one-third of all deaths.  Lung cancer is the most prevailing cancer causing death.  The top three leading causes of death are 1) Heart disease, 2) Stroke and 3) Lung cancer

7 Similarities in death rates between males and females include:  A general decrease in death rates associated with infectious and parasitic disease, blood diseases, nervous system diseases, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, digestive diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, genitourinary diseases, perinatal diseases, congenital diseases, ill-defined conditions and injury and poisoning.  Increased death rates associated with mental disorders.  Death rates associated with motor vehicle accidents have decreased. Differences in death rates between males and females include:  In general, death rates for males is considerably higher than that of females.  Death rates associated with motor vehicle accidents is considerably higher in males than females.  Deaths associated with COPD and lung cancer has decreased in males but has increased in females.COPD  Leading cause of deaths for males is Cardiovascular disease, followed by lung cancer and then stroke.  Cardiovascular disease, followed by dementia and Alzheimer's disease and then lung cancer.

8 International comparisons of mortality include: Australia V’s USA  The United States of America have a considerably higher rate of deaths resulting from all causes for both females and males in comparison to Australia.  Reasons may include: higher rates of violent crime, increased dietary risk factors, higher obesity levels, sedentary lifestyle, climatic considerations, poorer access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups. Australia V’s all other OECD Countries:  Australia has the third lowest death rates for males and the second lowest death rate for females in comparison to all other OECD countries. OECD  Notably, the gap between the mortality rates for males and females is smaller than all except Iceland.

9 Infant Mortality  This measure is considered to be the most important indicator of the health status of a nation and can also predict adult life expectancy.  The infant mortality rate in Australia has declined steadily over the past few decades. This trend can be attributed to: -improved medical diagnosis and treatment of illness - improved public sanitation - health education - improved support services for parents and newborn babies and children. Extension Information  Despite the continued decline, infant mortality still accounts for two- thirds of all deaths of children aged 0-14 years.  Additionally, the infant mortality rate is higher among indigenous infants. Most of these deaths can be attributed to congenital malformations.congenital malformations.

10 Morbidity Information about the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the total population gives us a broader perspective on the nations' health than that provided by mortality statistics.

11 In reference to the previous table: The disease that had a significant burden on health but caused a relatively low fatal component is:  Mental disorders - apart from suicide, many mental conditions do not cause death, rather they impact the quality of life. Reasons why mental disorders may cause a low incidence of death may be due to medical intervention as it can be very effective in treating mental illness. Conclusions that one can draw from the table of statistics on infectious disease are:  While infectious diseases are not prevalent in modern Australia, those infectious diseases that are still present have a significant fatal component e.g. HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis. The ability to effectively treat and cure these conditions has not been adequately achieved, thus if a person is infected then death as a result of the infectious disease is likely.

12 Extension Information Morbidity measures and indicators include:  Hospital use – provide some measure of the rates of illness and accidents in a community. This is identified through records of the cause and number of administrations.  Doctor visits and medicare statistics – provides some measure of the rates of illness and accidents in a community. This is identified through records of reasons for consultation, rates of consultation and also days absent from school or work.  Health surveys and reports – these can provide a range of key health indicators and bring together an extensive range of health information.  Disability and handicap – the incidence of disease or accident can lead to impairment, disability and handicap. This can lead to a reduced ability to function normally, earn an income and live a healthy life. Information can be obtained regarding disability and handicap to measure morbidity through increased doctor consultations are a result of the impairment and number of people on a disability pension.handicap

13 Life Expectancy  At birth, life expectancy is a common indicator of health status and is often used as evidence in statements about the improved health of Australians.  The table below outlines life expectancy rates for Australians throughout a range of periods of time.

14 Identifying priority health issues allows governments and administrators to make decisions about allocating health resources to have the greatest impact on the health of Australians. The principles underpinning the identification of priority health issues include:  Social justice principles  Priority population groups  Prevalence of condition  Potential for prevention and early intervention  Costs to the individual and community

15 Social Justice Principles  Social justice means that the rights of all people in our community are considered in a fair and equitable manner. While equal opportunity targets everyone in the community, social justice targets the marginalised and disadvantaged groups of people in our society. Public policies should ensure that all people have equal access to health care services. People living in isolated communities should have the same access to clean water and sanitation as a person living in an urban area. People of a low socioeconomic background should receive the same quality health services that a person in a higher socioeconomic income receives. Information designed to educate the community must be provided in languages that the community can understand.  A focus on social justice aims to reduce the level of health inequalities in Australia. The four principles of social justice are equity, access, participation and rights.equityaccess participationrights

16 Priority Population Groups Within the identified priority health issues for Australian’s certain groups in our population have been identified as at increased risk of developing these diseases or health conditions.priority health issues By identifying at risk population groups, government health care expenditure and health promotion initiatives can be directed towards these groups to attempt to reduce the prevalence of the disease. Epidemiological information reveals that the priority population groups within Australia include:  Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people  Socioeconomically disadvantaged people  People in rural and remote areas  Overseas-born people  The elderly  People with disabilities

17 Prevalence of Condition Epidemiological data provide a guiding path for determining the priority areas for Australia’s health. Epidemiology also provides information on the incidence of mortality and morbidity in the Australian population and thus, to a certain degree, on the health status of the population.incidencemortality morbidity It reveals the prevalence of disease and illness, and helps us to identify risk factors. These risk factors can then indicate the potential for change in a health area.prevalencerisk factors High prevalence rates of a disease indicate the health and economic burden that the disease or condition places on the community. Potential for Prevention and Early Intervention The majority of disease and illness suffered by Australians result from poor lifestyle behaviours. It is difficult to change behaviours as they often reflect the environmental situation in which an individual lives. For change to occur, we must address both individual behaviours and environmental determinants. Most of the chronic diseases, injuries and mental health problems have social and individual determinants that can be modified so prevention and early intervention may lead to improved health status.

18 Cost to the Individual and Community Disease and illness place a great deal of economic and health burden on an individual and community. It can be measured in terms of financial loss, loss of productivity, diminished quality of life and emotional stress. The impact of disease in economic terms can be explained by the following: - Direct costs include money spent on diagnosing, treating and caring for the sick plus the money spent on prevention. - Indirect costs are the value of the output lost when people become too ill to work or die prematurely. E.g. Cost of foregone earnings, absenteeism and the retraining of replacement workers.

19 Extension Work: Social Justice Principles Examine the poster ‘CLOSE THE GAP’ and discuss the campaign. Your response should be no longer than a page and it should address: 1.How the campaign aims to address social justice principles. 2.How the campaign is focusing on a health priority issue to improve Australia’s health.

20 Extension Work: Potential for prevention and early intervention ‘BreastScreen Australia program still yielding results’ Click on the link BreastScreen Australia read through the information and answer the following questions:BreastScreen Australia 1. Describe the trend for breast cancer mortality rates between 1990 and 2005. 2. How often is breast cancer screening recommended? 3. Explain how breast screening acts as an early intervention program to reduce the prevalence of breast cancer in Australia.

21 Extension Work: Prevention and early intervention Choose one example of a chronic disease or illness: for example cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma or depression. 1. For the chronic disease or illness that you selected, is there potential for early intervention and prevention? Explain. 2. Do you think that your selected disease or illness should be a priority for Australia’s health? Explain your answer. 3. How do the trends in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease support the idea that it is a disease that benefits from early intervention and prevention strategies?

22 Extension Work: Cost to the individual and the community Costs of Cardiovascular Disease Click on the link Cardiovascular diseases are Australia's costliest read through the information and answer the following questions:Cardiovascular diseases are Australia's costliest 1. What was the direct health care expenditure on cardiovascular disease in 2004-05? 2. Was the cost of treating and managing cardiovascular disease higher in males or in females? 3. On which age group in the population is health care spending highest?

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24 Unfortunately, the generally improved health status for Australians is not shared Australian-wide. There are some fundamental differences in the level of health of particular groups in our generally affluent society. These differences exist in terms of:  The unequal distribution of some illnesses or conditions throughout the population (across different cultures, geographic locations, ages and genders).  Health inequities; that is the unjust impact on the health status of some groups due to social, economic, environmental and cultural factors, such as income, education, availability of transport and access to health servicesinequities Major indicators such as the incidence and prevalence of disease and different rates of sickness, hospitalisation and death, point to areas in which inequities exist.

25 Groups experiencing health inequities in Australia include:  Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples  socioeconomically disadvantaged people  people in rural and remote areas  overseas born people  the elderly  people with disabilities.

26 Aboriginal Health If video fails to start click herehere

27 Aboriginal Health If video fails to start click herehere

28 Aboriginal Health Refer to page 21 of your work booklet and complete the following activity: Research and analyse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and ONE other population group experiencing health inequities from the list above by investigating:  The nature and extent of the health inequities  The sociocultural, socioeconomic and environmental determinantssocioculturalsocioeconomicenvironmental  The roles of individuals, communities and governments in addressing the health inequities You will find the information at: Australia's Health 2010 Australia's Health 2010 Download the ‘Australia’s Health 2010’ document

29 Aboriginal Health Nature and Extent of Health Inequalities Summarised:  Lower life expectancy rates at birth for both males and females. Life expectancy for indigenous people is 17 years lower than the life expectancy of non-indigenous people.  Higher mortality rates at all ages compared with the rates for non- indigenous people. In the four states/territories with the largest indigenous populations, 70% of indigenous people who died were younger than 65 years, compared with the 21% of non-indigenous people who died younger than 65 years.  Higher mortality rates from preventable causes compared with Australia as a whole. Death rates were almost three times as high for indigenous males and females as for the non-indigenous population.

30 Aboriginal Health  High death rates from diseases of the circulatory system (including heart disease and stroke), injuries (including motor vehicle crashes, homicide and suicide), respiratory disease (including pneumonia), cancer, endocrine disorders (specifically diabetes and digestive disorders.  An infant mortality rate that is three times higher than the national average.  Trends in the health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples include: a decline in death rates from all causes for indigenous males (reflecting a similar reduction for all Australian males) and a similar decline in death rates for indigenous females.

31 Aboriginal Health The sociocultural, socioeconomic and environmental determinants in detailsocioculturalsocioeconomicenvironmental To support the second part of your response complete the following instructions. Click on the link Australia's Health 2010 and then go to:Australia's Health 2010  Page 242 for determinants and risk factors  Page 68 for Environmental Determinants overview  Page 78 for Socioeconomic Determinants overview  Page 80 for Sociocultural Determinants overview (knowledge, attitudes and beliefs)

32 Sociocultural, socioeconomic and environmental determinants of Aboriginal health:  Sociocultural: - ATSI people would prefer to get health advice from their traditional elders as opposed to seeking medical advice from mainstream health care in Australia. This has been brought about by a predisposed disposition of mistrust with non-indigenous Australians. - Geographically ATSI people choose to live in areas of Australia that is remote to health care facilities. This results in a reduced number of ATSI people accessing health care in Australia.

33  Socioeconomic: - ATSI people have lower education outcomes compared to the rest of Australia. As a result employment opportunities can be reduced to positions where an individual is unable to acquire a steady income that supports an adequate quality of life. - With a reduced income, ATSI people are less likely to use what finances they have for health care and as a result they are less likely to seek medical help when suffering an illness or disease.

34  Environmental: - Geographic location of ATSI communities affects their health outcomes. Due to a remote living location, many ATSI people find it difficult to access health care in Australia. Due to the distance, they are less likely to seek health care in Australia. - Furthermore, the remoteness of their living environment also reduces access to technology which results in reduced exposure to preventative strategies implemented such as testing and diagnosis as well as reduced contact with health information that can be accessed via internet and television.

35 The roles of individuals, communities and governments in addressing health inequalities associated with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders:  Individuals: - For the health of ATSI people to improve, individuals need to be empowered to make decisions about their own health. Individual empowerment refers to an individual’s ability to make decisions about or have personal control over their life. Therefore individuals play a key role in promoting their own health because personal behaviour is a major determining factor of health status. - It is the responsibility of ATSI people to make decisions about their own health by changing their behaviour to improve their current health status.

36  Communities : Are responsible for supporting the good health of ATSI people by providing services and community health professionals that can assist in addressing the health concerns of ATSI people. It is also the responsibility of the community to provide health education to develop personal skills so that individuals may be empowered to take responsibility for their own behaviours that impact on their health.

37  Governments : Are responsible for planning and forming national health policies to improve ATSI health. Identify health concerns of ATSI people and coordinate health promotion campaigns. Give directions to State government policy making regarding ATSI peoples health. Allocate funding to increase health facility and services access to ATSI peoples. Furthermore to target specific health issues of ATSI peoples and provide preventative strategies that can be implemented to address the concerns.

38 Extension Work: Age distribution of deaths among indigenous and non-indigenous people 2001-2005 1.In figure 3.5 identify the age group that experiences the highest proportion of deaths among: a) indigenous people and b) non-indigenous people. 2.Compare the proportions of deaths of indigenous and non- indigenous Australians in the 0- 24 age group. Suggest reasons for the difference. 3.Propose reasons for the higher proportion of deaths among indigenous people in the 25-44 years age group compared with the same age group among non-indigenous people.

39 Extension Work: Aboriginal Health Inequalities Click on the link Indigenous Infant Mortality Rates read the media release and complete the following questions:Indigenous Infant Mortality Rates 1. Identify areas in which there has been an improvement in the health and welfare of indigenous people. 2. Suggest two reasons for a declining trend in mortality rates among indigenous Australians. 3. Summarise the health inequities that exist in the indigenous population.

40 Extension Work: Treating Kidney Disease in Alice Springs Click on the link Kidney Disease read the media release article and complete the following questions:Kidney Disease 1. What is the purpose of the Alice Springs ‘Purple House’? 2. What priority health issue does this facility aim to address? 3. What does the article suggest is the extent of advanced kidney disease in Alice Springs? 4. Identify the barriers that have prevented indigenous people of the Pintupi communities from successfully undertaking dialysis treatment in the past. 5. Explain why this health service is succeeding where others have failed. 6. Identify the roles of the various people and organisations in supporting and operating this health service.

41 People in Rural and Remote Areas

42 Nature and Extent of Health Inequalities Summarised  Rates of death by injury, road vehicle accidents, asthma, diabetes and infant mortality are notably higher than those experienced in metropolitan areas.  Higher rates of death are recorded for non-indigenous men in rural and remote areas.  Rates of death due to injury are increasing for both females and males in comparison to metropolitan areas. Therefore the trend suggests that those living in rural and remote areas are at greater risk of dying from injury than other population groups in Australia.  males and females living in remote areas, and males living in rural areas are hospitalised for diabetes twice as often as their metropolitan counterparts.  Females in rural areas have a rate of hospitalisation for diabetes that is 25% higher than females in metropolitan areas.  Deaths due to asthma occur at higher rates in remote areas than in rural areas, which are in turn also higher than metropolitan areas.  Suicide rates in Australia have remained relatively constant over the last one hundred years, but the highest rates of suicide are found in large rural centres and other remote areas.

43 People in Rural and Remote Areas Sociocultural Determinants: People in rural and remote areas are more likely to:  Be smokers  Drink alcohol in hazardous quantities  Be overweight or obese  Be physically inactive  Have poorer access to specialists and other medical services  Have risky occupations  Be at higher risk on the road due to longer travelling distances Socioeconomic Determinants:  Have lower levels of education  Are typically poorer compared to their metropolitan counterparts as they have lower incomes. Environmental Determinants:  Are geographically isolated resulting in many individuals not accessing health specialists when sick or injured.  Greater travelling distances by road increases the incidence of road or death injuries.  Geographic location limits exposure to health information and services that assist in the development of personal skills to address health concerns.

44 The roles of Individuals, Communities and Governments in addressing the health inequalities of people living in rural and remote areas. Individuals: For the health of rural and remote people to improve, individuals need to be empowered to make decisions about their own health. Individual empowerment refers to an individual’s ability to make decisions about or have personal control over their life. Therefore individuals play a key role in promoting their own health because personal behaviour is a major determining factor of health status. - It is the responsibility of rural and remote people to make decisions about their own health by changing their behaviour to improve their current health status.

45 Communities: Are responsible for supporting the good health of rural and remote people by providing services and community health professionals that can assist in addressing the health concerns of rural and remote people. It is also the responsibility of the community to provide health education to develop personal skills so that individuals may be empowered to take responsibility for their own behaviours that impact on their health.

46 Governments: Are responsible for planning and forming national health policies to improve rural and remote peoples health. Identify health concerns of rural and remote people and coordinate health promotion campaigns. Give directions to State government policy making regarding rural and remote peoples health. Allocate funding to increase health facility and services access to rural and remote peoples. Furthermore to target specific health issues of rural and remote peoples and provide preventative strategies that can be implemented to address the concerns.

47 Extension Work: Male stereotype no longer flies as more women join service WHEN marketing manager Janice Hoogeveen took her stethoscope to the Royal Flying Doctor Service with a "brand visualisation exercise" to gauge its 81-year-old image, she found it was overwhelmingly masculine and deeply Australian. Thinking of the service as a person, participants almost invariably named men, including actors Hugh Jackman and Paul Hogan, the late eye surgeon Fred Hollows and the poetic horseman Clancy of the Overflow, Ms Hoogeveen told the board yesterday. The board had gathered in Broken Hill after the NSW Governor, Marie Bashir, opened a $4 million base. But such stereotypes drag behind reality. Over the past year, the service's health workforce has been feminised thanks mainly to an influx of dedicated adventurers from overseas. As city dwellers shun remote workplaces, the service has recruited abroad. Even the donors are far-flung. Aviation tycoon Sir Michael Bishop donated $600,000 to the new base and raised $2 million from British supporters. When Englishwoman Elaine Powell started 15 months ago, she was the only female of the five doctors. Now there are three more women, as well as two female flying dentists and mental-health counsellors. "It's probably softened the image a little bit," she said, as she boarded a Hawker Beechcraft KingAir bound for an Ivanhoe clinic. Almost nine in 10 of the 367 patients surveyed by the service's Rural Women's GP Service, which flies city doctors to remote areas, or clinics, said the visiting female doctor was "extremely" important to them. Almost one-third preferred a female doctor in general and about a quarter wanted to see one for pap smears only. Women in small towns were often embarrassed to have pap smears administered by male doctors with whom they socialised, said Malaysian-born doctor Anna Neoh. Based in Adelaide, she was on her third Broken Hill tour with the women's service. In the south-east the service has added 600 patients in the past six months. Article continues on the next slide

48 "The over-riding thing people say is it is a treat to talk to a woman doctor about all their fears and anxieties and feel safe and understood," she said. Emma Boulton, recruited from Oxford to Broken Hill, said the new doctors hoped to reduce the number of hysterectomies by offering alternatives. French woman Solange Imseih, 34, signed on full-time in February with the flying doctor service's main wing and now only sees her Melbourne-based husband once a month so she can indulge her passion for bush medicine. She spent Thursday night flying an expanse the size of Europe, first to a Queensland car accident, then transporting two patients to Adelaide, stopping over in northern South Australia on the way home. "You get an adrenalin rush from being in a difficult position," she said. The only drawback was that hospital staff presumed she was a nurse, even though she had doctor on several name tags. Scots-born dentist Alison Blundell this week tended to teeth in the sunroom and bedroom of two outback stations. But she and patients like verandah clinics best. "People like being seen," she said. Complete the following questions in your work book: 1. Identify the health issues for women in rural areas with a health workforce dominated by males. 2. How have these health issues contributed to lower levels of health among rural women? 3. Outline some positive health impacts of an increasing number of female doctors working in rural areas. 4. Propose some other strategies to improve the health status of males and females in rural and remote areas.

49 Prevalence is the number of cases of disease that exists in a defined population at a point in time. Incidence is the number of new cases of disease occurring in a defined population over a period of time. Impairment is a loss or abnormality of body structure or of a physiological or psychological function. Mortality refers to the number of deaths in a given population from a particular cause and/or over a period of time. Infant Mortality refers to the number of infant deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births. Morbidity is the incidence or level of illness, disease or injury in a given population. Life Expectancy is the length of time a person can expect to live. It refers to the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age, based on current death rates. COPD refers to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. It is a long-term lung disease that reduces airflow in and out of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Smoking is the major cause of COPD. To learn more visit: http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/publication_pdfs/8095/AHS-8095-ENG.pdf http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/publication_pdfs/8095/AHS-8095-ENG.pdf OECD stands for Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. It is an organization for developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. To learn more visit: http://www.mapsofworld.com/oecd-member-countries.htm http://www.mapsofworld.com/oecd-member-countries.htm Congenital Malformations are a physical defect present in a baby at birth that can involve many different parts of the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, liver, bones, and intestinal tract. Congenital malformation can be genetic, it can result from exposure of the foetus to a malforming agent (such as alcohol), or it can be of unknown origin.liver Return to previous slide

50 Handicap refers to a perceived social disadvantage that results from an impairment or disability Equity is concerned with creating equal opportunities for health and with bringing health differentials down to the lowest levels possible. Access is concerned with providing all individuals with the same level of access to health care opportunities in Australia. Participation is concerned with ensuring that individuals are given the opportunity to be involved in decisions being made about health and health care in Austrlia. Rights is concerned with ensuring that the rights of all people in our community are considered in a fair and equitable manner. Priority Health Issues refers to high levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems in Australia. These conditions can be further identified as:  cardiovascular disease (CVD)  cancer (skin, breast, lung)  diabetes  respiratory disease  injury  mental health problems and illnesses Return to previous slide

51 Risk Factors refers to specific lifestyle behaviours that contribute to the development of a health condition. Inequities are unfair differences in levels of health status between groups in a society. Sociocultural determinants of health include the way we are influenced by our family, peers, media, religion and culture. Socioeconomic determinants of health include employment, education and income level. Environmental determinants of health include geographical location, and access to health services and technology. Return to previous slide

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