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Presentation on theme: "ADAPTING FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 5

2 Individual Differences
What are the types and sources of individual differences among children?

3 Effective Teachers Understand typical and atypical child development
Understand the importance of knowing each child as an individual Use this knowledge to plan and adapt curriculum To help each child meet important learning goals (NAEYC, 2009)

4 Individual Differences
NATURE NURTURE The hereditary or genetic contributions to human development Biological and neurological drivers of development Range of variation in timing, not sequence Environmental factors and experiences that influence human development and behavior Environmental influences: quality of child care setting, family economic resources, safety, siblings, etc.

5 Transactional Theory of Development
Development is the result of both biology and experience and how they influence each other Biology and experience play critical, interrelated roles in children’s development Accumulation of certain kinds of experiences can enhance development or place children at risk

6 Know the Child, Family, Culture
Categories of Student Variance Contributors to the Category Biology Gender: Physical, Cognitive, Social Abilities & Disabilities: Cognitive, Emotional/Social, Physical Neurological “wiring” for learning Development Degree of Privilege Economic status Race Culture Support system Language Experience Positioning for learning Adult models Trust Self-concept Motivation Temperament Interpersonal skills Preference/ Learning Styles Interests Learning preferences Preferences for individuals Categories of Student Variance with Contributors that have some Implications for Learning Know the Child, Family, Culture

What do teachers need to know about individual variation among children and how to accommodate individual differences?

What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences and what are its implications for practice?

9 Multiple Intelligence - MI
Howard Gardner – MI Theory 1980s “Splitter” Eight Intelligences - Ability to: Linguistic – use language effectively Musical- compose, comprehend and appreciate music Logical-Mathematical – reason logically, especially in math and science Spatial – notice details of what one sees, imagine and manipulate visual objects in ones’ mind Kinesthetic – use one’s body skillfully Naturalistic – recognize patterns in nature and differences among natural objects and life-forms Interpersonal – awareness of one’s won feelings, motives, and desires Intrapersonal – recognize patterns in nature and differences among natural objects and life forms

10 Key Points MI Theory An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings Each person possesses all eight intelligences -- a theory of cognitive functioning and all seven function together in ways unique to each person Most people can develop each intelligence to an adequate level of competency --if given appropriate encouragement enrichment and instruction Intelligences usually work together in complex ways -- intelligences are always interacting with each other and must be thought of in their specific culturally valued contexts There are many ways to be intelligent within each category -- emphasizes the rich diversity of ways in which people show their gifts within intelligences as well as between intelligences

11 Development of MI FACTORS
Biological endowment, including hereditary or genetic factors and insult or injuries to the brain before, during and after birth. Personal life history, including experiences with parents, teachers, peers, friends, and others who either awaken intelligences or keep them from developing Cultural and historical background, including the time and place in which you were born and raised and the nature and state of cultural or historical developments in different domains.

12 MI Activators and Deactivators of Intelligences
Crystallizing experiences -- turning points in the development of a person's talents and abilities usually in early childhood -- Albert Einstein 4 years old his father showed him a magnetic compass filled him with a desire to ferret out the mysteries of the universe Paralyzing experiences -- experiences which shut down intelligences often filled with shame, guilt, fear, anger and other negative emotions that prevent our intelligences from growing and thriving

13 MI Environmental Influences
Promote or retard the development of intelligences: Access to resources or mentors -- lack of resources Historical-cultural factors -- the times Geographic factors -- where you live Familial factors -- parental wishes Situational factors -- unable to develop due to situation

14 Learning Cycle of Differentiated Instruction
Get to know EACH CHILD ECE Standards EL Guidelines CURRICULUM ENVIRONMENT CONTENT TEACHING PROCESS Ability/Talent – Interests –PK – Learning profile CHILD ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTS The creation of multiple paths so that children of different abilities, interests, and learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to achieve important learning goals Plan the Environment Differentiate Content Teaching Process Assess Learning

15 RtI – RtII – R&R What the Response to Intervention, Response to Intervention and Instruction, and Recognition and Response models and how do they address individual differences in young children’s learning?

16 Responsive Education Response to Intervention (RtI)
Prevent school failure, reading and math Bridge general and special education Tier 1: high quality instruction for ALL, comprehensive, evidence-based curriculum and intentional teaching Tier 2: DAP group interventions for children who need more focused learning experiences Tier 3: Intensive, individualized interventions Recognition and Response (R&R) Recognition: monitor learning progress Response: Core curriculum & intentional teaching for ALL children; targeted interventions for SOME children Collaborative Problem solving: A team makes informed decisions based on assessment results to plan and evaluate instruction and interventions at all tiers

17 Pennsylvania Response to Intervention and Instruction
RtII in PA PA State Aligned System (SAS) The use of a standards-aligned, comprehensive school improvement and/or multi-tiered system of support for implementing PA’s SAS. RtII rests on using a continuum of student performance data to continuously inform, monitor and improve student access and response to high- quality core and supplemental instruction/intervention. A road map for facilitating systems change within the context of data-based decision-making and instructional matching. The intent of RtII is to improve learning as efficiently, effectively and equitably as possible for ALL students, including students with disabilities.

18 It’s the LAW What practices are required by law for children with disabilities and special needs?

19 The Language of Special Education
LANGUAGE MATTERS Children with special needs – broad term Children with disabilities – specific identification First person language – CHILD first, then identifier

20 What do we need to KNOW? Types of Exceptionality
Children with disabilities are diverse and distinct from one another Various disorders do not necessarily occur in isolation A diagnosis rarely results in precise education interventions Types of Exceptionality Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) Down syndrome (DS) Cerebral palsy (CP) Deafness and hearing impairment Visually impaired or blind Mental retardation Developmental delay Gifted

21 Legal Requirements IDEA Individualized Education Program (IEP)
IEP Team Early Intervention IFSPs vs IEPs

What practices for teaching children with special needs are effective teaching all children?

23 Effective Practices Inclusive Classrooms Team mentality Assessments
Natural Learning Environments Benefits Fostering Friendships: Modeling, Play activities, Prompting, Rehearsal/practice Team mentality Assessments Curriculum-based Routines-based

24 Plan Individualized Instructional Strategies
Goals: Generative skills can be used across setting, people, events, and objects PA Early Learning Standards Learning Opportunities during daily routines Use Helping Strategies: Prompts Reinforce Children’s Learning Naturally occurring reinforcers Monitor Progress: Observation, Checklist, Rating Scale


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