2Individual Differences What are the types and sources of individual differences among children?
3Effective Teachers Understand typical and atypical child development Understand the importance of knowing each child as an individualUse this knowledge to plan and adapt curriculumTo help each child meet important learning goals (NAEYC, 2009)
4Individual Differences NATURENURTUREThe hereditary or genetic contributions to human developmentBiological and neurological drivers of developmentRange of variation in timing, not sequenceEnvironmental factors and experiences that influence human development and behaviorEnvironmental influences: quality of child care setting, family economic resources, safety, siblings, etc.
5Transactional Theory of Development Development is the result of both biology and experience and how they influence each otherBiology and experience play critical, interrelated roles in children’s developmentAccumulation of certain kinds of experiences can enhance development or place children at risk
6Know the Child, Family, Culture Categories ofStudent VarianceContributors to the CategoryBiologyGender: Physical, Cognitive, SocialAbilities & Disabilities: Cognitive, Emotional/Social, PhysicalNeurological “wiring” for learningDevelopmentDegree of PrivilegeEconomic statusRaceCultureSupport systemLanguageExperiencePositioning for learningAdult modelsTrustSelf-conceptMotivationTemperamentInterpersonal skillsPreference/Learning StylesInterestsLearning preferencesPreferences for individualsCategories of Student Variance with Contributors that have some Implications for LearningKnow the Child, Family, Culture
7ACCOMODATING DIFFERENCES What do teachers need to know about individual variation among children and how to accommodate individual differences?
8MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences and what are its implications for practice?
9Multiple Intelligence - MI Howard Gardner – MI Theory 1980s“Splitter”Eight Intelligences - Ability to:Linguistic – use language effectivelyMusical- compose, comprehend and appreciate musicLogical-Mathematical – reason logically, especially in math and scienceSpatial – notice details of what one sees, imagine and manipulate visual objects in ones’ mindKinesthetic – use one’s body skillfullyNaturalistic – recognize patterns in nature and differences among natural objects and life-formsInterpersonal – awareness of one’s won feelings, motives, and desiresIntrapersonal – recognize patterns in nature and differences among natural objects and life forms
10Key Points MI TheoryAn intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settingsEach person possesses all eight intelligences -- a theory of cognitive functioning and all seven function together in ways unique to each personMost people can develop each intelligence to an adequate level of competency --if given appropriate encouragement enrichment and instructionIntelligences usually work together in complex ways -- intelligences are always interacting with each other and must be thought of in their specific culturally valued contextsThere are many ways to be intelligent within each category -- emphasizes the rich diversity of ways in which people show their gifts within intelligences as well as between intelligences
11Development of MI FACTORS Biological endowment, including hereditary or genetic factors and insult or injuries to the brain before, during and after birth.Personal life history, including experiences with parents, teachers, peers, friends, and others who either awaken intelligences or keep them from developingCultural and historical background, including the time and place in which you were born and raised and the nature and state of cultural or historical developments in different domains.
12MI Activators and Deactivators of Intelligences Crystallizing experiences -- turning points in the development of a person's talents and abilities usually in early childhood -- Albert Einstein 4 years old his father showed him a magnetic compass filled him with a desire to ferret out the mysteries of the universeParalyzing experiences -- experiences which shut down intelligences often filled with shame, guilt, fear, anger and other negative emotions that prevent our intelligences from growing and thriving
13MI Environmental Influences Promote or retard the development of intelligences:Access to resources or mentors -- lack of resourcesHistorical-cultural factors -- the timesGeographic factors -- where you liveFamilial factors -- parental wishesSituational factors -- unable to develop due to situation
14Learning Cycle of Differentiated Instruction Get to know EACH CHILDECE StandardsEL GuidelinesCURRICULUMENVIRONMENTCONTENTTEACHING PROCESSAbility/Talent – Interests –PK – Learning profileCHILDASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTSThe creation of multiple paths so that children of different abilities, interests, and learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to achieve important learning goalsPlan the EnvironmentDifferentiate ContentTeaching ProcessAssess Learning
15RtI – RtII – R&RWhat the Response to Intervention, Response to Intervention and Instruction, and Recognition and Response models and how do they address individual differences in young children’s learning?
16Responsive Education Response to Intervention (RtI) Prevent school failure, reading and mathBridge general and special educationTier 1: high quality instruction for ALL, comprehensive, evidence-based curriculum and intentional teachingTier 2: DAP group interventions for children who need more focused learning experiencesTier 3: Intensive, individualized interventionsRecognition and Response (R&R)Recognition: monitor learning progressResponse: Core curriculum & intentional teaching for ALL children; targeted interventions for SOME childrenCollaborative Problem solving: A team makes informed decisions based on assessment results to plan and evaluate instruction and interventions at all tiers
17Pennsylvania Response to Intervention and Instruction RtII in PAPA State Aligned System (SAS)The use of a standards-aligned, comprehensive school improvement and/or multi-tiered system of support for implementing PA’s SAS.RtII rests on using a continuum of student performance data to continuously inform, monitor and improve student access and response to high- quality core and supplemental instruction/intervention.A road map for facilitating systems change within the context of data-based decision-making and instructional matching.The intent of RtII is to improve learning as efficiently, effectively and equitably as possible for ALL students, including students with disabilities.
18It’s the LAWWhat practices are required by law for children with disabilities and special needs?
19The Language of Special Education LANGUAGE MATTERSChildren with special needs – broad termChildren with disabilities – specific identificationFirst person language – CHILD first, then identifier
20What do we need to KNOW? Types of Exceptionality Children with disabilities are diverse and distinct from one anotherVarious disorders do not necessarily occur in isolationA diagnosis rarely results in precise education interventionsTypes of ExceptionalityAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)Down syndrome (DS)Cerebral palsy (CP)Deafness and hearing impairmentVisually impaired or blindMental retardationDevelopmental delayGifted
21Legal Requirements IDEA Individualized Education Program (IEP) IEP TeamEarly InterventionIFSPs vs IEPs
22INTENTIONAL & EFFECTIVE What practices for teaching children with special needs are effective teaching all children?
23Effective Practices Inclusive Classrooms Team mentality Assessments Natural Learning EnvironmentsBenefitsFostering Friendships: Modeling, Play activities, Prompting, Rehearsal/practiceTeam mentalityAssessmentsCurriculum-basedRoutines-based
24Plan Individualized Instructional Strategies Goals:Generative skills can be used across setting, people, events, and objectsPA Early Learning StandardsLearning Opportunities during daily routinesUse Helping Strategies: PromptsReinforce Children’s LearningNaturally occurring reinforcersMonitor Progress:Observation, Checklist, Rating Scale