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© 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education Tenth Edition
Chapter 14 Early Childhood Special Education
Focus Questions Why is it so difficult to measure the impact of early intervention? How can we provide early intervention for a child whose disability is not yet present? How are the four different purposes of assessment and evaluation in early childhood special education related to one another? Which do you think are the most important goals of early childhood special education? How can a play activity or an everyday routine become a specially designed learning opportunity for a preschooler with disabilities? 14-2 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Importance of Early Intervention The earlier intervention begins the better What is early intervention? A comprehensive system of therapies, educational, nutritional, child care, and family supports, all designed to reduce the effects of disabilities or prevent the occurrence of learning and developmental problems Does early intervention work? Research evidence shows that comprehensive, experientally based early intervention enhances the development of young children who exhibit delays and helps children at risk Skeels and Dye The Milwaukee Project The Abecedarian Project The Infant Health and Development Program 14-3 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Importance of Early Intervention Outcomes for Early Intervention in IDEIA of 2004 Enhance the development of infants and toddlers with disabilities Reduce educational costs to society by minimizing the need for special education and related services after infants and toddlers with disabilities reach school age Maximize the potential for individuals with disabilities to live independently in society Enhance the capacity of families to meet the needs of their preschooler with disabilities Enhance the capacity of state and local agencies to identify, evaluate, and meet the needs of all children 14-4 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
IDEA and Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education P.L. 99-457: Mandated preschool services for children with disabilities ages 3 to 5 and provided a voluntary incentive grant program for early intervention services to infants and toddlers IDEA: Mandates early intervention services for any child under 3 years of age who has developmental delays or has a high probability of developmental delay Mandates preschool for children with disabilities ages 3–5 States that receive IDEA funds for early intervention must serve all infants and toddlers with developmental delays or established risk conditions States may also serve infants and toddlers who are identified as at biological or environmental risk 14-5 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Individualized Family Services Plan An IFSP is a plan that addresses the needs of the child and family and is developed by a multidisciplinary team An IFSP defines the family as being the recipient of early intervention services The IFSP must be evaluated once a year and reviewed at six-month intervals Special education for preschoolers Preschool children do not have to be identified under existing categories to receive services Local education agencies may elect to use a variety of service options 14-6 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Screening, Identification, and Assessment Assessment in early childhood special education is conducted for at least four different purposes: o Screening o Diagnosis o Program planning o Evaluation Screening Tools o The Apgar Scale o Newborn Blood Test Screening o Developmental Screening Tests 14-7 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Screening, Identification, and Assessment Diagnostic Tests measure performance in 5 major areas: ○ Motor development ○ Cognitive development ○ Communication and language development ○ Social and emotional development ○ Adaptive development Program Planning and Evaluation Tools o Curriculum-based assessment-Used to Identify current levels of functioning Select IEP/IFSP goals and objectives Determine appropriate interventions Evaluate progress 14-8 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Curriculum and Instruction in Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum and program goals Support families in achieving their own goals Promote child engagement, independence, and mastery Promote development in all important domains Build and support social competence Facilitate the generalized use of learned skills Prepare and assist children for typical life experiences with their families, in school, and in their communities Help children and their families make smooth transitions Prevent or minimize the development of future problems or disabilities 14-9 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Curriculum and Instruction in Early Childhood Special Education Developmentally Appropriate Practice o A framework of principles and guidelines that outline practice that promotes young children’s optimal learning and development Core Principles o Knowledge must inform decision making o Goals must be challenging and achievable o Teaching must be intentional to be effective 14-10 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Curriculum and Instruction in Early Childhood Special Education Selecting IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives Goals and objectives should be evaluated according to the following five quality indicators: Functionality Generality Instructional context Measurability Hierarchical relationship between long-range goals and short-term objectives 14-11 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Instructional Adaptations and Modifications Modifications and adaptations to the physical environment, materials, and activities are often sufficient to support successful participation and learning by a child with disabilities Embedded learning opportunities focus on IEP objectives in the context of naturally occurring classroom activities Preschool activity schedules include a balance of child- initiated and planned activities, large- and small-group activities, active and quiet times, indoor and outdoor activities, and allow easy transition from activity to activity A supportive physical environment is needed for planned learning activities-play areas and needed materials are accessible and safe, boundaries minimize distractions, the environment is enticing for exploring and playing 14-12 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Service Delivery Alternatives for Early Intervention IDEA requires that early intervention services be provided in natural environments to the greatest extent possible Service delivery options for early childhood special education include: – Hospital-based programs-for those who require specialized health care – Home-based programs-built around family involvement and support – Center-based programs-provides early intervention in a special education setting outside the home – Combined home-center programs-includes center-based activities and home visitations 14-13 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Service Delivery Alternatives for Early Intervention Rationale for Parent Involvement o Parents and families are most important in making early intervention work o Parents are the most frequent and constant observers of their children’s behavior o Parents know better than anyone else what their children need and can help educators set realistic goals o Parents can monitor and report on their children’s progress at home o Parents can contribute to their children’s progress at every stage 14-14 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 30 Early Intervention Overview Rationale for early intervention services Principles of early intervention Services and supports available for early.
EARLY START Federal and State Requirements. What Is Early Start Frequently asked Questions Frequently asked Questions Which children are served? What.
1 Nebraska’s Pathway to Early Learning Guidelines.
Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services
Ideas from the Outcomes Think Tank. Gather family’s concerns and general information about child following program procedures Use 3 global outcomes as.
Family Centered Approach Hussain Ali Maseeh, Psy.D. Director of SEDIC.
A DEFINITION OF EARLY INTERVENTION
Early Success A framework to ensure that ALL children and families in the District of Columbia are thriving... CHILDREN & FAMILIES Community Supports Education.
Infant & Toddler Connection of Virginia 1 Virginia’s System for Determination of Child Progress (VSDCP)
EARLY INTERVENTION ECED H ANDICAPPED C HILDREN ’ S E ARLY E DUCATION A SSISTANCE A CT (PL ), 1968 Purpose was to improve early intervention.
Embedding the Early Brain & Child Development Framework into Quality Rating and Improvement Systems Meeting Name Presenter Name Date 1.
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Healthy Inclusion: Caring for Children with Special Needs in Child Care © The National Training Institute for Child Care Health Consultants,
Early Childhood Education Dr. Bill Bauer William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education,
What should be the basis of
NAEYC Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8.
Speakers Dr. Blanca Enriquez, Director, Office of Head Start
A Brief Overview of California’s Early Start Program Early Intervention Services in California Developed by California MAP to Inclusion and Belonging…Making.
Diane Paul, PhD, CCC-SLP Director, Clinical Issues In Speech-Language Pathology American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Pacific TA Meeting: Quality Practices in Early Intervention and Preschool Programs Overview to Trends and Issues in Quality Services Jane Nell Luster,
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