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Substrate Spawners. Artificially Raising Substrate Spawning Fish Hobbyists have been artificially raising substrate-spawning fish for many years.Hobbyists.

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Presentation on theme: "Substrate Spawners. Artificially Raising Substrate Spawning Fish Hobbyists have been artificially raising substrate-spawning fish for many years.Hobbyists."— Presentation transcript:

1 Substrate Spawners

2 Artificially Raising Substrate Spawning Fish Hobbyists have been artificially raising substrate-spawning fish for many years.Hobbyists have been artificially raising substrate-spawning fish for many years. This technique is popular for angelfish, Central American Cichlids and other substrate-spawning fish with small eggs.This technique is popular for angelfish, Central American Cichlids and other substrate-spawning fish with small eggs. Some hobbyists feel that artificially raising fry (i.e. pulling the spawn) weakens the pair bond of the fish.Some hobbyists feel that artificially raising fry (i.e. pulling the spawn) weakens the pair bond of the fish. This notion has not been explored scientifically.This notion has not been explored scientifically. It should be pointed out the the majority of angelfish breeders (and many cichlid breeders) raise fry artificially.It should be pointed out the the majority of angelfish breeders (and many cichlid breeders) raise fry artificially.

3 Angelfish Production

4 Topics BackgroundBackground VarietiesVarieties Water QualityWater Quality NutritionNutrition SpawningSpawning HatchingHatching JuvenilesJuveniles

5 Angelfish Background AngelfishAngelfish –Cichlidae family Pterphyllum scalare, P. dumerilii and P. altum –Amazon basin and coastal rivers of the Guineas

6 Varieties ColorsColors –Silver –Gold –Black FinnageFinnage –Normal –Veil –Super veil Scales –Normal –Pearl scale Operculum –Normal –Blusher

7 Silver (wild type)

8 Gold Marble Veil Black and White

9 White BlusherBlack Super Veil

10 Chocolate Super Veil Black Marble

11 Water Quality TemperatureTemperature –82ºF spawning (27.8ºC) –76-84ºF growout pHpH – Hardness –Less than 100 mg/L Daylength –14L – 8D

12 Nutrition BreedersBreeders –Frozen Brine Shrimp in the morning –Flakes in the afternoon JuvenilesJuveniles –Newly hatched Artemia salina –Flakes FryFry –Newly hatched Artemia salina

13 Flake Feeds

14 15 oz Brine Shrimp 1 tsp eggs with 2 tbs salt in 2.8 liter water

15 Brine Hatching Station 3 liter soda bottles

16 Spawning Broodstock selectionBroodstock selection –Hard to distinguish males from female Natural pairingNatural pairing –6 high quality juveniles in tank –Separate when bonding commences

17 Spawning Place pair in gallon aquariumPlace pair in gallon aquarium WaterWater –82°F –14 hrs light FeedingFeeding –slacked out frozen brine shrimp –Flakes Spawning substrateSpawning substrate

18 Natural Pairing

19 Natural Substrate Slate Tile

20 FemaleMale

21 eggs per spawn eggs per spawn Spawn every 7-10 daysSpawn every 7-10 days

22 2.5 gallon hatching tanks

23 Juveniles 3 months from hatch to market3 months from hatch to market SizesSizes –Dime $0.50 –Quarter $0.75 –Half dollar $1.00 to 1.50 (These $$ are 1997 data.)

24 Substrate Spawners (Robbing the Nest) Rem: there are as many ways to raise fry as there are aquarium hobbyists and scientists.Rem: there are as many ways to raise fry as there are aquarium hobbyists and scientists. Before you get started… Purchase the necessary supplies.Purchase the necessary supplies. Make sure you have space!!!Make sure you have space!!! Decide where you want to place the hatch tank.Decide where you want to place the hatch tank. Observe when your fish spawn. One day post- spawning, you can pull the eggs.Observe when your fish spawn. One day post- spawning, you can pull the eggs.

25 Partial Supply List Small hatching tankSmall hatching tank Air Pump (10 gallon size).Air Pump (10 gallon size). Standard, plastic airlineStandard, plastic airline Gang ValveGang Valve Small 7.5 Watt HeaterSmall 7.5 Watt Heater Methylene blue (any brand)Methylene blue (any brand) Small sponge filterSmall sponge filter Turkey basterTurkey baster Hang-on or floating thermometerHang-on or floating thermometer

26 Step 1 Fill a clean, small tank or container with six quarts of water from the spawning tank.Fill a clean, small tank or container with six quarts of water from the spawning tank.

27 Step 2 Remove the hatch from the spawning tank the day after spawning.Remove the hatch from the spawning tank the day after spawning. Avoid exposing the eggs to air.Avoid exposing the eggs to air. Invert the spawning surface (rock, etc.) inside a cup or container.Invert the spawning surface (rock, etc.) inside a cup or container.

28 Step 3 Place the spawning surface (rock, etc.) inside the hatching tank.Place the spawning surface (rock, etc.) inside the hatching tank.

29 Step 4 Aerate the water.Aerate the water. Take care not to blastTake care not to blast the eggs with air. It could damage them.

30 Step 5 If your room temperature is below 78F, place a 7.5 watt aquarium heater in the tank.If your room temperature is below 78F, place a 7.5 watt aquarium heater in the tank. Maintain the temperature at 78–81°F.Maintain the temperature at 78–81°F. A lid may help in cold rooms.A lid may help in cold rooms.

31 Step 6 Add 2 drops of Methylene Blue per each quart of water (any brand will do nicely).Add 2 drops of Methylene Blue per each quart of water (any brand will do nicely). Methylene Blue kills fungus, which would prevent oxygen exhange across the egg’s outer membrane and ultimatley destroy the eggs.Methylene Blue kills fungus, which would prevent oxygen exhange across the egg’s outer membrane and ultimatley destroy the eggs. NOTE: Methylene Blue stains clothes permanently!NOTE: Methylene Blue stains clothes permanently!

32 Step 7 Methylene Blue stains the water a deep blue.Methylene Blue stains the water a deep blue. Eggs are light sensitive— do not put a light over the tank.Your water should be darker than the picture at right.Eggs are light sensitive— do not put a light over the tank.Your water should be darker than the picture at right.

33 Step 8 Use a strong flashlight and check the hatch daily.Use a strong flashlight and check the hatch daily. Most eggs hatch within hours.Most eggs hatch within hours. At 6 to 9 days post-spawn, the fry should be free of the spawning surface at the "belly whomper" stage— not quite able to swim, but hopping on the bottom.At 6 to 9 days post-spawn, the fry should be free of the spawning surface at the "belly whomper" stage— not quite able to swim, but hopping on the bottom. Remove the spawning surface (rock, etc.).Remove the spawning surface (rock, etc.).

34 Step 9 As soon as the fry are belly whompers, start small, daily water changes.As soon as the fry are belly whompers, start small, daily water changes. Remove a quart of water from the tank. Replace it with fresh, dechlorinated water.Remove a quart of water from the tank. Replace it with fresh, dechlorinated water. As you do more water changes, the water will get lighter and lighter.As you do more water changes, the water will get lighter and lighter.

35 Step 10 Carefully remove the debris using a turkey baster or small siphon.Carefully remove the debris using a turkey baster or small siphon.

36 Fry care… When the fry are free-swimming, add a small, seasoned sponge filter to replace the airstone.When the fry are free-swimming, add a small, seasoned sponge filter to replace the airstone. At this point, start feeding freshly hatched baby brine shrimp. Feed until the tummies are nice and round!At this point, start feeding freshly hatched baby brine shrimp. Feed until the tummies are nice and round! Prepare a ten-gallon, grow-out tank. Use a sand or bare bottom, heater and sponge filter.Prepare a ten-gallon, grow-out tank. Use a sand or bare bottom, heater and sponge filter.

37 Continue feeding baby brine shrimp.Continue feeding baby brine shrimp. -21 days post hatch: Begin feeding finely crushed flake food Begin feeding finely crushed flake food -30 days fry should be off brine shrimp. -Weekly, 50% water changes are critical for fry growth.

38 Spawning Substrate What if you want a natural set up??What if you want a natural set up?? Depending on the fish species, you may choose to utilize aquatic vegetation to complete your fish’s life cycle with.Depending on the fish species, you may choose to utilize aquatic vegetation to complete your fish’s life cycle with. Aquarium plants & Breeding Fish by Robert Paul H Plants play an important role in breeding many types of fish and protecting fry. Choosing the right plants for your fish depends on the growing habits and leaf structure of the plant, and the breeding habits of the fish. Here are some examples: (Click on the images for a larger view) Cabomba caroliniana Spawning plant for many barbs and characins. Suitable for cold water fish. Needs bright light. Hornwort, Ceratophyllum demersum Rootless, floating stem plant. This hardy, easy to grow plant can be anchored to the substrate, (but it will never grow roots), or allowed to float. Great spawning plant for all fish and gives hiding places for females and fry. Water sprite, Ceratopteris Planted or floating, suitable for larger fish and bubble-nest builders. Easy to care for plant. Cryptocoryne blassibroad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Cryptocoryne blassibroad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Marble Queen Sword, Radican Sword Large broad leaf plant suitable for large fish who like to lay eggs on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Egeria najans Stem plant with small leaf whorls, moderate light, grows planted or floating and suitable for free-spawning fish in cooler water Hygrophila difformis, Water Wisteria Stem plant with thick lacey growth that needs bright light. Suitable for larger free spawning fish. Ambulia, Limnophila Tall growing stem plant with thick, feathery leaf clusters. Requires bright light. Spawning plant for all free-spawning characins and barbs. Ludwigia repens Stem plant that needs moderate to bright light, planted or floating, can be used in cool water, suitable for fish that like to spawn on smaller leaf surfaces such as Chessboard cichlids Foxtail, Myriophyllum Stem plant with soft, fine-plumed leaves. Needs moderate to bright light and suitable for small free spawning fish. Floating plants for bubble-nest builders and Killifish: Water lettuce Duckweed Riccia Water hyancinth Java moss Provides a thick mossy cushion on the tank bottom or attached to wood or rock. Free spawning fish such as barbs, characins, and rainbow fish respond well to it. Requires only low to moderate light.

39 Spawning Substrate Plants

40 Plants, Plants, Plants… Plants play an important role in breeding many types of fish and protecting fry.Plants play an important role in breeding many types of fish and protecting fry. Choosing the right plants for your fish depends on the growing habits and leaf structure of the plant, and the breeding habits of the fish.Choosing the right plants for your fish depends on the growing habits and leaf structure of the plant, and the breeding habits of the fish. Aquarium plants & Breeding Fish by Robert Paul H Plants play an important role in breeding many types of fish and protecting fry. Choosing the right plants for your fish depends on the growing habits and leaf structure of the plant, and the breeding habits of the fish. Here are some examples: (Click on the images for a larger view) Cabomba caroliniana Spawning plant for many barbs and characins. Suitable for cold water fish. Needs bright light. Hornwort, Ceratophyllum demersum Rootless, floating stem plant. This hardy, easy to grow plant can be anchored to the substrate, (but it will never grow roots), or allowed to float. Great spawning plant for all fish and gives hiding places for females and fry. Water sprite, Ceratopteris Planted or floating, suitable for larger fish and bubble-nest builders. Easy to care for plant. Cryptocoryne blassibroad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Cryptocoryne blassibroad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Marble Queen Sword, Radican Sword Large broad leaf plant suitable for large fish who like to lay eggs on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish Egeria najans Stem plant with small leaf whorls, moderate light, grows planted or floating and suitable for free-spawning fish in cooler water Hygrophila difformis, Water Wisteria Stem plant with thick lacey growth that needs bright light. Suitable for larger free spawning fish. Ambulia, Limnophila Tall growing stem plant with thick, feathery leaf clusters. Requires bright light. Spawning plant for all free-spawning characins and barbs. Ludwigia repens Stem plant that needs moderate to bright light, planted or floating, can be used in cool water, suitable for fish that like to spawn on smaller leaf surfaces such as Chessboard cichlids Foxtail, Myriophyllum Stem plant with soft, fine-plumed leaves. Needs moderate to bright light and suitable for small free spawning fish. Floating plants for bubble-nest builders and Killifish: Water lettuce Duckweed Riccia Water hyancinth Java moss Provides a thick mossy cushion on the tank bottom or attached to wood or rock. Free spawning fish such as barbs, characins, and rainbow fish respond well to it. Requires only low to moderate light.

41 Cabomba caroliniana Spawning plant for many barbs and characins.Spawning plant for many barbs and characins. Suitable for cold water fish.Suitable for cold water fish. Needs bright light.Needs bright light.

42 Hornwort, Ceratophyllum demersum Rootless, floating stem plant.Rootless, floating stem plant. This hardy, easy to grow plant can be anchored to the substrate, (but it will never grow roots), or allowed to float.This hardy, easy to grow plant can be anchored to the substrate, (but it will never grow roots), or allowed to float. Great spawning plant for all fish and gives hiding places for females and fry.Great spawning plant for all fish and gives hiding places for females and fry.

43 Water sprite, Ceratopteris Planted or floating, suitable for larger fish and bubble-nest builders.Planted or floating, suitable for larger fish and bubble-nest builders. Easy to care for plant.Easy to care for plant.

44 Cryptocoryne blassi Broad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as AngelfishBroad leaf plant, moderate light, grows fairly tall, suitable for fish that like to spawn on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish

45 Marble Queen Sword, Radican Sword Large broad leaf plantLarge broad leaf plant Suitable for large fish who like to lay eggs on large flat surfaces, such as AngelfishSuitable for large fish who like to lay eggs on large flat surfaces, such as Angelfish

46 Foxtail, Myriophyllum Stem plant with soft, fine- plumed leaves. Needs moderate to bright light and suitable for small free spawning fish.Stem plant with soft, fine- plumed leaves. Needs moderate to bright light and suitable for small free spawning fish.

47 Water Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis Stem plant with thick lacey growth that needs bright light.Stem plant with thick lacey growth that needs bright light. Suitable for larger free spawning fish.Suitable for larger free spawning fish.

48 Floating plants for bubble-nest builders and Killifish: Water lettuceWater lettuce DuckweedDuckweed RicciaRiccia Water hyancinthWater hyancinth duckweed water lettuce riccia water hyacinth


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