Presentation on theme: "1. Infer How is the embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates? What might this similarity indicate about their evolutionary relationship."— Presentation transcript:
1. Infer How is the embryology of echinoderms similar to that of vertebrates? What might this similarity indicate about their evolutionary relationship 2. Review What two features define animal phyla 3. Apply Concepts Explain the description of a body plan as an evolutionary “experiment” be sure to include successful and unsuccessful body plans
CH 25 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS 25.2 Animal Body Plans and Evolution
Features of Body Plans Levels of organization Body symmetry Differentiation of germ layers Formation of body cavities Patterns of embryological development, segmentation, cephalization, and limb formation.
Levels of Organization
Body Symmetry Radial symmetry Body parts extend from a central point Many lines of symmetry.
Body Symmetry Bilateral symmetry Single imaginary plane divides the body into left and right sides that are mirror images of one another Have a definite front (anterior) and a back (posterior) Have an upper (dorsal), and a lower (ventral).
Differentiation of Germ Layers Endoderm innermost germ layer Develops into lining of the digestive tract and much of the respiratory system Mesoderm Middle germ layer Gives rise to muscles and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory organ systems.
Differentiation of Germ Layers Ectoderm Outermost germ layer Produces sense organs, nerves, and the outer layer of the skin.
Formation of a Body Cavity Body cavity Fluid-filled space between the digestive tract and body wall Provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended and grow.
Coelomate True coelom Body cavity that develops within the mesoderm and is completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm.
Acoelomates Lack a body cavity altogether.
Pesudocoelomate Pseudocoelom Only partially lined with mesoderm.
Patterns of Embryological Development Zygote Fertilized egg, sexual reproduction Blastula Hollow ball of cells Develops from zygote.
Blastula develops Folds in on itself, forms an elongated structure with a tube that runs from one end to the other Tube becomes the digestive tract.
Protostomes Blastopore becomes the mouth Anus forms from a second opening at the opposite end of the tube Most invertebrates.
Deuterostomes Blastopore becomes the anus Mouth is formed from a second opening that develops Chordates and echinoderms.
Segmentation: Repeating Parts Typically have at least some internal and external body parts that repeat on each side of the body.
Cephalization: Getting a Head Cephalization Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at their anterior end Formed by the fusion of internal and external parts that concentrate sense organs and nerve cells in the head.
Limb Formation: Legs, Flippers, and Wings Segmented, bilaterally symmetrical animals typically have external appendages on both sides of the body.
Animal phyla are typically defined according to adult body plans and patterns of embryological development.
The Cladogram of Animals Indicates the sequence in which important body plan features evolved.
Complicated body systems of vertebrates aren’t necessarily better than the “simpler” systems of invertebrates.
1. Which animal takes the most time to reach the differentiation stage and which takes the least time 2. How much longer does it take a rhesus monkey zygote to reach the 4 cell stage than a chicken zygote 3. Which developmental stage would you expect to occur first- formation of the coelom or the blastula- explain