Presentation on theme: "Guiding the beginning teacher"— Presentation transcript:
1Guiding the beginning teacher For the purposes of this guide the title “mentor” or “mentor teacher” will be used synonymously for cooperating teachers who work with student teachers and mentor teachers who work with interns.The objective of this guide is to provide general clarification of the role of a mentor teacher.Designed to compliment the Cooperating Teacher Handbook and the Mentor Teacher Handbook provided by TWU.
2IntroductionThe quality of the relationship developed between the experienced teacher and the beginning teacher is central to an effective and meaningful mentoring experience. Mentoring provides the beginning teacher with a one-on-one relationship with an experienced teacher who serves as the confidante, the cheerleader, and the trusted counselor. The mentoring relationship can be very rewarding, both professionally and personally, for the beginning teacher and the mentor.While the beginning teacher acquires one-on-one support and a practical understanding of teaching through the mentoring relationship, the mentor teacher is able to reflect upon and improve his or her own practice by sharing experiences and expertise as well as his or her wisdom with the beginning teacher.The College of Professional Education is pleased to present “Guiding the Beginning Teacher” mentor guide. Information provided in this guide is designed to support the mentor teacher, whether he or she is working with a traditional student teacher or an intern teacher.This guide will help the mentor teacher support the beginning teacher as he or she refines his or her teaching, understand professional roles and responsibilities and learn how to positively affect students.
3Mentor TrainingAll mentors need to be trained because good teachers of children do not necessarily make good coaches for adults. Mentors must know what is expected of them going into the program and they must receive training in the skills of effective mentoring and strategies for supporting new teachers to be successful in a learner-centered classroom.Elements of the training may include:Roles and Responsibilities of a mentorUsing beginning teacher’s work to evaluate and inform practiceAnalysis of teaching strategiesPersonal and Professional SupportCoachingStrategies for conferencing and feedbackObservation skillsEffective lesson planningDiagnosing and analyzing student-centered management (classroom management) issuesBroad problem solving skillsLearner-centered curriculum, instruction and assessment
4Of all the beginning teacher’s contacts, few are remembered as well as the mentor teacher. For that reason, mentor teachers are selected by the school district with care and with the knowledge that their experiences will provide a nurturing environment for the beginning teacher. It is of primary importance that the beginning teacher process be a positive experience for both the beginning teacher and the mentor teacher.Further, the university supervisor plays an important role in assisting the beginning teacher and the mentor teacher. Because the beginning teacher is some distance from the campus, a university supervisor serves as a liaison between the university and the beginning teacher, and assists the mentor teacher in directing the beginning teacher’s development.
5Teacher professional competence1 Major Domains of Professional CompetencePedagogicalCompetence(Performance)DispositionalCompetence(Professional Competence)Knowledge of the Discipline & Learners(Knowledge)Keeping up to date in discipline and understanding and respecting learnersEffective assessment, planning, instructions and student-centered (class) managementEthical JudgmentReflective JudgmentCritical CuriosityResponsiveness to educational communityTolerance of ambiguity, attentiveness to self and othersCommunicationskillsReiman & Oja, 2003
6Needs of Beginning Teachers Direction and guidance in initial job assignment or placementHelp in building competenceTime to work with mentorOpportunity to discuss concerns in a setting free of evaluationOrientation to the school and communitySupport and advocacy by principal, mentor and staffA realistic initial job assignment
7MENTORING/SUPERVISION Once a student is accepted into Texas Woman’s University’s Teacher Education Program, he or she must complete a professional practicum.Undergraduate students are required to complete traditional student teaching, while graduate students can elect to satisfy his or her professional practicum requirements through an internship or through traditional student teaching.If the graduate student selects the internship, he or she must meet requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which includes holding a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university, passing his or her content area TExES exam or completing a minimum of 24 hours in his or her area of certification (middle and secondary placement) if a state exam is not available, passing his or her practice TExES Pedagogy and Professional Responsibility (PPR) exam and completing 12 hours of pedagogy courses (EDUC 5113, EDUC 5123, EDUC 5131, EDUC 5133 and EDUC 5142).Undergraduate certification applicants must satisfy the following requirements:■ APPLICANT FOR AN INTERDISCIPLINARY MAJOR DEGREE1. Admission to the Teacher Education Program2. A minimum 2.75 overall grade point average3. Satisfactory completion (grade of C or higher) of all courses in the Interdisciplinary major and the Education minor4. Mastery of the Pedagogy and Professional Responsibility (PPR) TExES qualifying examination with a score of 75 or above5. Mastery of content area evidenced by a TExES qualifying examination score of 75 or above■ APPLICANT FOR A SECONDARY, ALL-LEVEL, OR GRADE 4-8 SPECIALIZATION DEGREE3. Satisfactory completion (grade of C or higher) of all courses in the Education minor4. Satisfactory completion (as defined by the major department) of all courses in the major5. Mastery of the Pedagogy and Professional Responsibility (PPR) TExES qualifying examination with a score of 75 or above6. Mastery of teaching practice-based content evidenced by completion of recommending program's TExES eligibility criteria■ APPLICANT FOR A POST-BACCALAUREATE CERTIFICATE Degreed students seeking teacher certification through the Post-Baccalaureate Program must satisfy the following requirements:2. Academic requirements vary depending on initial coursework and area of certification; however, post-baccalaureate students must complete all courses leading to certification, including 12 hours of education courses with a grade of "C" or higher3. Cumulative grade point average of a least 2.75 overall5. Elementary level teachers must receive a score of 75 or above on the TExES Qualifying Exam6. Secondary and All-level teachers must provide documentation of TExES eligibility from their content area department representative. (Check with your major department for specific requirements.)
8When a graduate student is hired as the “teacher of record” on a one-year probationary contract by a school district or accredited private school, the student must enroll in a two-semester internship program and he or she is assigned a university supervisor. (The university supervisor is an expert in the intern’s field of study and is certified to supervise students in his or her specific discipline.) The employing school assigns a veteran teacher to serve as a peer mentor for the one-year internship.Conversely, an undergraduate student is assigned to a mentor teacher who is selected with care by his or her principal who is secure in the knowledge that the mentor’s experience will provide a nurturing environment for the beginning teacher for the one semester practicum.Given their importance, we trust the mentor teachers will assist the beginning teachers as they prepare for careers as professional educators.
9Mentor, Beginning Teacher, University Supervisor Roles and Responsibilities
10Mentor’s roles & responsibilities Provides a professional role modelCommits to mentoring the beginning teacher and following the university’s guidelines in structuring the experienceIs a good networker, great listener and facilitatorKnows how and when to give feedbackSets high expectationsIs accessibleHolds the beginning teacher accountableProvides a view of work through the eyes of a professionalGives access to someone who has been through college, job and family transitionsGives something back to the communityGives feedback on observed performanceOffers guidance in business customs of the schoolServes as a confidantMakes recommendations for advancementFosters developmentIs a friend and teacherHelps Build self-esteemHelps design realistic goalsShares aspirations and dreamsAssists in career planningMentors and beginning teachers participate in activities that help beginning teachers to reflect upon their classroom instruction. Mentors can help by:Assisting in planning lessons,Conducting classroom observations and data collection,Modeling instructional practices,Team teaching, andConducting reflective conversations.To further facilitate the beginning teacher’s professional growth, mentors and beginning teachers attend focus and networking groups together. Also, beginning teachers develop reflective practices through activities such as journals and teaching logs.Provides personal support. Mentors can help relieve the stress on first time teachers by introducing them to other faculty members and helping the beginning teacher to put problems in perspective with support and encouragement.
11Beginning Teacher’s roles and responsibilities Enters into the relationship to be mentored on career and how to maintain a personal lifePlays an active role in the mentoring relationship. A beginning teacher can do this by offering critical reflections on his or her own practice and identifying areas in which assistance is needed.Agrees that this relationship is not entered into to find a jobGrows and thinks about planning for the futureParticipates regularly in programs organized for beginning teachers. These include peer support groups, professional development seminars and beginning teacher workshops.Takes advantage of someone’s knowledge, experience, and expertiseObserves experienced teachers at work. The beginning teacher should adhere to a schedule of observations of various experienced teachers. The beginning teacher could keep a log to record and reflect on the diversity of their styles.Agrees to a no-fault conclusion of mentor relationshipIs receptive to feedback and mentoringSeeks out help. The beginning teacher must understand that he or she must seek out support, be forthright in communicating classroom issues, and remain open to feedback in order to develop as a professional.Sets aside additional time per month to participate in the mentor programRespects time constraintsListens, thinks, questions, and strategizes with the mentorAlways RSVP’s non-attendance to the appropriate personnelAlways RSVP’s the Professional Development Center’s Office when requiredAbides by additional mentor/student rules agreed to by both parties
12University Supervisor’s roles and responsibilities Provides coaching to help the beginning teacher develop effective teaching strategies and communication strategies with students, parents, and peersAssists the beginning teacher in developing student- centered management and organization skillsProvides emotional support and guidance in decision- makingObserves the beginning teacher’s teaching performance and provides feedbackAssigns a gradeEncourages the beginning teacher to seek advice regarding special problems in instruction
13Principal’s (or designee) roles and responsibilities for the intern Participates in mentor selectionAssigns beginning teachers to mentors who are competent teachers, committed to students and who have good people skillsSupports and champions mentoring to the entire school communityProvides release time for the mentor and beginning teacher to engage in regular classroom observations and other mentoring activitiesFacilitates a relationship between the mentor and beginning teacherMake sure that the mentor and beginning teacher meet regularly and that they are satisfied with each other’s participation in the programCreates an environment which allows for a no-fault termination of the mentoring relationshipConducts an orientation program for beginning teachers and mentorsThe principal is the chief administrator and leader of the school where the beginning teacher is assigned.
14Principal’s (or designee) roles and responsibilities for Intern cont’d Conducts the formal evaluation of the beginning teacher. The principal should ensure that the beginning teacher is informed early in the year about the district’s evaluation standards and procedures and is evaluated on schedule.Establishes a school culture that is built on collegiality and supports professional collaborations among new and veteran teachersEnsures reasonable working conditions for the beginning teacher, which might include schedule modifications. For instance, the beginning teacher could be assigned a moderate teaching load, a course load with relatively few preparations, few extra-curricular duties, and a schedule that is compatible with the mentor’s.
15Principal’s (or designee) roles and responsibilities for the Student teacher The mentor can facilitate an ongoing relationship between the beginning teacher and the principal by:Arranging a conference between the beginning teacher and the principal early in the practicum.Asking the principal for assistance in interpreting school policies, curriculum and the nature of the community to the beginning teacher.Involving the principal in introducing the beginning teacher to the school and community.Inviting the principal to observe the beginning teacher and assist in the evaluation processEncouraging the beginning teacher to seek assistance from the principal with solving specific problems that may arise in the practicum.Inviting the principal to participate in conferences with the university supervisor, mentor teacher, and the beginning teacher.Asking the principal for assistance in arranging for the beginning teacher to observe in other schools or classrooms.Seeking assistance from the principal in explaining to the student teacher how the school program functions through the school office personnel.
16Director of the Professional Development center’s roles and responsibilities Counsels beginning teachers and designs a mentor program to ensure that the program components help mentors create a climate for high expectations for learningEnsures resources are available to support beginning teachers, mentors and university supervisorsCommunicates effectively with school communities, administrators and staffMaintains an understanding of the existing local communitiesCoordinates professional development opportunities for both beginning teachers and mentorsUnderstands the skills and strategies needed to exercise conflict resolution and problem solvingDevelops techniques and strategies needed to manage crisesDevelops evaluations and provides the outcomes to the appropriate disciplinesSupports the university’s Institutional Effectiveness Program
18Analysis of Teaching Strategies Provide instructional support. This includes, but is not limited to:Regular observation of and conferencing with the beginning teacherSupport in teaching and learning standards of the state curriculum frameworksRefining various teaching strategiesAddressing issues such as student-centered (classroom) management and communicating effectively with parentsRecognizing and addressing multiple learning styles and individual student needs
19ACTIVITY PROFILE The TAP Road Map Weekly observations are required for all beginning teachers who are in training.Weekly observations are required for all beginning teachers who are classified as student teachers.
20Plan for learningDirections to the beginning teacher: With guidance from your mentor, complete this plan for the class your mentor will observe.STANDARDS-BASED INSTRUCTIONPLANRATIONALEDescribe the key knowledge and skills (objectives) you intend for students to learn in this lesson.Why are these objectives appropriate for these students at this time?Describe how these objectives build on previous lessons and how they lead to future lessons.ASSESSMENT STRATEGIESHow do you plan to assess how well the students have achieved the learning/objectives in this lesson? Check all that apply._____ Observation_____ Written test (e.g., multiple choice, true/false)_____ Oral report_____ Performance_____ Individual or group project_____ Portfolio entry_____ Conference_____ Student self-assessment_____ Peer assessment_____ Rubric_____ Other: __________________________________Why have you chosen these approaches for assessment for this lesson?How do these assessment approaches support your long-term assessment plan?INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERYDescribe your instructional delivery. Address each of the following questions.What instructional strategies will you use for this lesson? Include estimates of time allocations.How will the students be grouped for instruction?What activities have you planned for your students?What instructional materials, resources, and technology will you use? Attach a copy of instructional artifacts.What modifications will you make for identified students with special needs?How will you accommodate different instructional levels and learning styles of students in your class?Address each of the following questions.Why have you chosen these instructional strategies?Why have you chosen this grouping of students?Why have you chosen these activities?Why have you chosen these instructional materials and resources?Why have you chosen these modifications?Why have you chosen these accommodations?
21Instructional Delivery PLANDescribe your instructional delivery. Address each of the following questions.What instructional strategies will you use for this lesson? Include estimates of time allocations.How will the students be grouped for instruction?What activities have you planned for your students?What instructional materials, resources, and technology will you use? Attach a copy of instructional artifacts.What modifications will you make for identified students with special needs?How will you accommodate different instructional levels and learning styles of students in your class?RATIONALEAddress each of the following questions.Why have you chosen these instructional strategies?Why have you chosen this grouping of students?Why have you chosen these activities?Why have you chosen these instructional materials and resources?Why have you chosen these modifications?Why have you chosen these accommodations?How do you plan to “close” the lesson?Are there any special circumstances that the observer should be aware of?
23Beginning Teachers Need support Click To Watch Video (WMV)Click To Watch Video (AVI)Click To Watch Video (FLV)Click To Watch Video (MPG)
24Ground Rules for Relationships Agree on:Scheduled meeting times and places,Best means of contact for questions as they arise, andPreferred means/times of contact outside of the school day.
25Mentor’s Keys to Relationship Building with the Intern The mentoring relationship is shaped by the activities that the mentor and beginning teacher participate in together. Principals should provide release time for both the mentor and the beginning teacher to engage in regular classroom observations and other mentoring activities. These activities should help the beginning teacher improve upon practice and develop an understanding of the professional standards for teachers.Part of the mentor’s job is to build a relationship with the beginning teacher. Mentors meet regularly with their beginning teachers, and they maintain daily contact with each other during the first two weeks of school. These two weeks may be when the beginning teacher needs the most assistance. Throughout the rest of the first semester, mentors and beginning teachers can meet twice weekly. For the remainder of the school year, the pair should try to meet at least once a week. One important factor for establishing a relationship of trust is to make sure that these meetings remain confidential.We encourage the mentor and beginning teacher to attend professional development activities together and separately. Possible professional development opportunities for both beginning teachers and mentors include coaching sessions, book studies, and networking meetings. Understanding how beginning teachers develop and how to communicate with adult learners will be helpful to mentors in their role.Mentors may meet with beginning teachers to provide professional assistance to them in areas such as district and campus information, assessment, teaching strategies, learning styles, classroom management, and relationships with families/caregivers and the community. Additionally, beginning teachers and mentors can meet regularly throughout the first semester as they complete the TxBESS Activity Profile.
27The activities with the beginning teacher may include: Meeting frequently during the school year to plan curriculum and lessonsObserving one another's classroomConferring with the beginning teacher daily/weekly to review performanceFormally observe the beginning teacher weekly using the observation form (6 times a semester for intern teachers)Co-teaching the beginning teacher’s classAnalyzing and assessing the beginning teacher's practice in relation to evaluation criteria in order to help the beginning teacher improveMaintaining confidentialityParticipating in support team meetingsAttending professional development activitiesProviding professional assistanceSharing a few guidelines for expected behavior in the classroomProviding ideas for positive reinforcementAssisting in setting goals and determining consequencesHelping the beginning teacher identify when to write a referral or contact families/caregivers
31Observation First Week: Observation and Assisting Observation is a very important skill in the mentor experience. By learning what to look for, you can enhance your own planning and self-evaluation skills. The observation forms were developed in these 3 Areas:Observing activityObserving strong point of the lessonProviding suggestions for improvementWas the lesson well planned?Was class time used efficiently and effectively?Were disciplinary problems handled appropriately?Did the beginning teacher demonstrate professionalism and work well with colleagues, staff and students?Is there a need for a three-way conference ?
33Reflective Conversations After the Observation Summarize impressionsRecall supporting informationCompare plans with achieved resultsAnalyze cause-effect relationshipsArticulate new learning
34Qualities of an Effective Mentor Think about a significant role model in your life and the qualities that made him/her special. Share these qualities with your beginning teacher to create a composite mentor.
35Personal and Emotional support Stress the need for life outside the classroomBe available to listenRecognize the new teacher as a peerRemind the new teacher that making mistakes is normalDesignate time for venting/sharing
36Deposits and Withdrawals In completing this exercise, consider words and actions that can be used positively, as deposits, and negatively, as withdrawals.List deposits into the relationship bank account:List withdrawals from the relationship bank account:You might consider the importance of ground rules as you think about Steven Covey’s metaphor of a relationship as an emotional bank account. Covey says that in relationships, words and actions can be interpreted both positively, as deposits, and negatively, as withdrawals. This quality is true for mentor-beginning teacher relationships as well.Source: Covey, S The 7 habits of highly effective people. New York: Fireside.
38Coaching is… Many dictionaries suggest that to coach is: To teachTo trainTo tutorA set of interactions between two individuals for the purpose of mutual professional growthAn independent relationship in which we support each other’s learning (co-learning)
40RAPPORT Build rapport through: Posture Gestures Tonality Language BreathingParaphrasingListening
41When To Apply Rapport Tools When you sense that your beginning teacher is tense or anxiousWhen a conversation becomes tense or anxiety-riddenWhen you do not understand what the beginning teacher is sayingWhen you are unable to pay attention to each otherThe rapport tools are especially helpful in difficult situations.When you sense that the beginning teacher is tense, or if you sense the conversation is becoming tense, it is important for the mentor to focus on the beginning teacher’s eyes and really try to hear and understand what they are saying. Mentors need to continue to guide beginning teachers to seek their own solutions.When you cannot understand your beginning teacher, listen even closer, continue to paraphrase, and ask guiding questions. Body language and eye contact are important here. Remember, the beginning teacher’s reflections are the focus of the conversation.Remember, it is the mentor’s responsibility to keep focused on the coaching conversation even when there are outside distractions.
42Paraphrasing Paraphrasing communicates that you: Have HEARD what the speaker said,UNDERSTAND what the speaker meant, andCARE about the speaker.Paraphrasing involves either:SUMMARIZING what you heard, orRESTATING it in your own words.Paraphrasing is a good way to build rapport with your beginning teacher.Remember that unless you paraphrase what you have heard and then wait to receive agreement from the speaker, you cannot be sure that you accurately understood the speaker’s message.
43Principles of Paraphrasing Attend fullyListen to understandCapture the essence of the messageReflect the essence of voice tone and gesturesMake the paraphrase shorter than the original statementParaphrase before asking a questionAttending fully means listening with the eyes, ears, mind, and heart. When attending fully, paraphrasing becomes an easy tool to utilize. When listening with the intention to understand, one needs to set aside unproductive listening.
44Unproductive Listening When listening to the speaker, avoid:Autobiographical comments;Inquisitive, frivolous questions; andEasy-fix solutions.There are three types of unproductive listening:Autobiographical—when what you are listening to reminds you of an experience you had, so you want to tell your story.Inquisitive—when you are curious about what you are hearing and you want to ask more about it for your personal knowledge.Solution—when you believe you know how to solve the problem and want to give advice.Think back to our mentoring roles—parent, expert, friend, boss, and coach. In which of the mentor roles is unproductive listening most likely to occur? The autobiographical comments and inquisitive, frivolous questions put the mentor in the friend role, and the easy-fix solutions put the mentor in the expert role.Unproductive listening is about you rather than the person you are coaching. Avoid it.
45Possible Paraphrasing stems So…In other words…While you…Given that…From what I hear you say…I’m hearing many things…As I listen to you, I’m hearing…The last three stems (From what I hear..., I’m hearing..., As I listen…) are overused. People tend to be uncomfortable with silence, so they often use those stems to fill the silence while they are still thinking about what to say. It’s all right to be quiet and consider your paraphrase before offering it. It sends the message that you are truly trying to understand. On the other hand, when you use those three stems repeatedly, people may turn off and believe you are parroting rather than paraphrasing. If you have been using stems like those three, challenge yourself to try a new one from the top of this list.
46Trust Build trust through: Confidentiality Consistency Interest ThinkingWithholding judgmentAs opposed to rapport, which may be momentary, trust is about the relationship in its entirety. Trust in a relationship is based on confidentiality and consistency. Mentors need to show that they are interested in what the beginning teacher has to say and in how the beginning teacher sees the situation. When conversations are focused on beginning teachers’ perspectives, beginning teachers are more likely to become active participants in planning for their future growth. Coaches don’t offer judgments—positive or negative. Even when you give a compliment, you are moving the focus back to your own perspective.
47Reflective Questioning Reflective questions:Are open-ended,Promote a nonjudgmental process, andEncourage self-directed learning and problem solving.When a relationship of trust exists, reflective questioning helps beginning teachers to think aloud about how to be more effective educators.Reflective questions are open-ended and require more than a yes/no response. They promote a nonjudgmental process for encouraging self-directed learning and problem solving.
48Reflective Questioning cont’d Reflective questions help the beginning teacher:HYPOTHESIZE what might happen.ANALYZE what did or did not work.IMAGINE possibilities.EXTRAPOLATE from one situation to another.EVALUATE the impact.Coaches use reflective questions in specific ways to promote deep thinking. If analysis is the goal, word choices will move the beginning teacher’s thinking in that direction.
49Effective Question Stems Some effective question stems:What’s another way you might…?What might you see happening in your classroom if…?What options might you consider when…?How was…different from or similar to…?What criteria do you use to…?How could you transfer that same strategy to …?
50Questioning Tips Have a specific intention for the question. Use the context to shape the question.Use exploratory language.Use introductory phrases.Use plural nouns.Eliminate “why?”AVOID:Do you…?Can you…?Will you…?Have you…?1. Have a specific intention for the question.Example: To help a teacher think about classroom arrangements or student interactions2. Use the context to shape the question.Example: Visualize your classroom arrangement...3. Use exploratory language, such as,“might”“if” (“What might happen if…”)4. Use introductory phrases.“As you think about. . .” (consider options)“When you…” (think about ways)“Given that…” (student interaction)5. Use plural nouns (room arrangements).“As you think about your decisions, what…?”6. Eliminate “why?” to promote extended thinking.7. AVOID:“Do you..?”“Can you…?”“Will you…?”“Have you…?”Yes/no questionsNonjudgmental inquiries focus the beginning teacher’s thinking about an event/situation. That is the goal of coaching conversations. The coach’s intention is to facilitate conversations with the beginning teacher as he/she explores/plans/reflects on classroom practices and decisions.
51Conversation Starters Who influenced your decision to become an educator, and how did he/she influence you?What two major changes would you make to welcome new teachers into the education profession?If you could make any changes in education, what would you do?
52Consider this…If you know the answer to the question you are about to ask, you are not coaching.Coaching is not about solving someone’s problems for them; rather, coaching is about helping someone think about possible solutions to their challenges. Coaching is also not about giving someone your interpretation of an event; rather, it is about helping them construct their own interpretations.
53Student- Centered (Classroom) Management Click To Watch Video (WMV)Click To Watch Video (AVI)Click To Watch Video (FLV)Click To Watch Video (MPG)
54TasksMentors the beginning teacher as he or she identifies his or her philosophical beliefs when perfecting his or her student-centered behavior management planConfirms the beginning teacher’s student-centered behavior management system addresses the beginning teacher’s responsibilitiesConfirms that students’ responsibilities are addressed in the student-centered behavior management systemReviews the list that explains specific interventions the beginning teacher is committed to using with his or her students.Reviews the beginning teacher’s description of classroom incentivesReviews the beginning teacher’s explanation of discipline referral guidelines and procedures
55The Mentoring Cycle Reflective Classroom Conversation Observation Plan forLearning
56What Would a Beginning Teacher Say in…? 56What Would a Beginning Teacher Say in…?August through OctoberNovember through FebruaryMarch through JulyConsider what a beginning teacher sounds like and looks like at various times of the school year.Activity: Get out a piece of paper and fold it in the middle, then fold each side toward the center so that they meet. Now write “Sounds Like” and “Looks Like” at the top, creating a T-chart for this activity.Consider what a beginning teacher would say during these different times of the school year. Also, think about what a beginning teacher looks like. For example, in August the beginning teacher looks energetic, is smiling, and says, “I am so excited about having my own class.” Though there is variation within these time periods, just think about what beginning teachers generally look and sound like early in the year, during the middle of the year, and at the end of the year.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
57Phases of Teaching Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 57Phases of TeachingAugSepOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulSurvivalAnticipationDisillusionmentRejuvenationReflectionResearch has validated much of what you already know about beginning teachers. Now we are going to look at some documented models of the phases and stages that beginning teachers typically experience. The Phases of Teaching chart is from Ellen Moir’s research.Moir found that beginning teachers go through some very predictable phases. They start out the year very excited, however, by November or December, that excitement turns into disillusionment. Eventually, moving towards spring break, they begin to perk up and rejuvenate. With the end of the year in sight, most beginning teachers start to think about the next year and how they can improve their instruction and be more effective with their students.Source: Moir, E A guide to prepare support providers for work with beginning teachers: Training module. In New teacher success: You can make a difference, ed. S. Garmston and C. Bartell. Riverside, CA: California Department of Education and Commission on Teacher Credentialing.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
58Phase One: Anticipation 58Phase One: AnticipationBegins during student teaching/internshipIs marked by romanticization and a commitment to making a differenceCarries through the first weeks of schoolUse this scenario to build your understanding: It is August, and Janice is excited and anxious about the beginning of her first school year. She is confident of her content and pedagogical knowledge and has a passion for making a difference in students’ lives. She is setting up her room, organizing materials, and becoming familiar with elements of her job, such as the state standards and testing programs. It will definitely be different to have a classroom of her own.In the Anticipation phase, we see teachers like Janice romanticize teaching. They are very committed to making a difference in the lives of all their students and in their schools. Everything’s going to be perfect. This phase normally lasts through the first few weeks of school. At this point, the mentor and beginning teacher are building their relationship.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
59Phase Two: Survival Reality hits. 59Phase Two: SurvivalReality hits.Teachers in this stage are primarily focused on self.Some key Survival phase questionsHow am I doing?Will I make it?Do others approve of my performance?Continue the scenario: Everything seems to be going wrong. Janice’s principal did a walk-through, and nothing went as she had planned. The lesson did not work, the students did not participate, and she lost the supplemental handout for the assessment.In phase two, beginning teachers are really focused on survival and self—they are trying to set routines, determine what works, and implement their curriculum. They are often just trying to make it through the day. They need outside validation because they’re not getting it internally. They look for approval from folks outside of themselves—administrators, other teachers, families/caregivers, and students. Mentors should look for specific opportunities to provide reinforcement, remind the beginning teacher to maintain their lives outside of school, and provide instructional support through the TAP.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
60Phase Three: Disillusionment 60Phase Three: DisillusionmentExtensive time commitment—seventy hours per weekHigh stressSelf-doubtLower self-esteemContinue the scenario: It is Saturday night, November 15th, and the realities of being a teacher are beginning to sink in. Janice is spending at least half of each weekend and most weeknights trying to keep up. She struggles with managing lesson plans, record keeping, meetings with families/caregivers, and progress reports. She wonders if she really can do it.The Disillusionment phase is when beginning teachers really hit bottom. The time commitment is completely overwhelming. They find themselves in high-stress situations but lack the self-esteem to help themselves. Beginning teachers begin to doubt their career choices. They wonder, “Should I go back to school and change my profession?” Certain events, such as holiday programs and family/caregiver conferences, can deepen this sense of despair. At this point, mentors can help beginning teachers set priorities and provide time-saving hints.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
61Phase Four: Rejuvenation 61Phase Four: RejuvenationFocus on time and taskSome key Rejuvenation phase questionsIs there a better way?How can I do all that is expected of me?How can I improve this?Continue the scenario: Wow! After two weeks away, the job seems much more doable. Time away has allowed Janice to reconnect with friends, family, and herself. As she reflected on the first half of her year, she was amazed at how much she had accomplished and learned. Beginning the second semester, routines are in place, and her expectations much more realistic. Counting down to the end of the year clearly shows she’s made it through the first half of the school year with summer vacation coming into view.Finally, beginning teachers have had some time to rest, spend time with family and friends, and organize and plan. After the break, beginning teachers are in the grasping phase—they’re finally starting to get it. They are able to focus on the tasks at hand and complete them within a more reasonable amount of time. They start to look for better ways to do things. This is when new teachers begin to make more meaningful connections between their instructional strategies and the state standards and tests. We can really start to see growth and progress! Mentors can help beginning teachers be more effective by engaging them in reflective conversations.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
62Phase Five: Reflection 62Phase Five: ReflectionAssessment of impact on studentsFocus on student learningSome key Reflection phase questionsAre students learning?What are students learning?How can I raise achievement levels?Is this meaningful to students?Complete the scenario: Three weeks to go and counting! Janice recognizes the tremendous growth she’s experienced this year and feels pride in her accomplishments. As she thinks back, there are things she would never try again or would choose to do very differently. Next year will be exciting! She will not be the newest kid on the block, and she has a workable plan for managing time and tasks. Janice also has greater comfort with content knowledge and setting expectations for students.Towards the end of the year, beginning teachers focus on impact. This is where we want our beginning teachers to be. Mentors can help beginning teachers reflect on how they impacted students and how they can improve. At this time, beginning teachers can really focus on student assessment data and other indicators of student progress.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
63Phases of Teaching Revisited 63Phases of Teaching RevisitedAugSepOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulSurvivalAnticipationDisillusionmentRejuvenationReflectionThe red dashed line represents the attitudes of beginning teachers when they receive the proper support. Supported beginning teachers go through the same stages as unsupported beginning teachers; however, the lows are not as low, nor do they last as long.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
64Developmental Stages of Concern 64Developmental Stages of ConcernFrances Fuller (1969) asked teachers to describe their chief concerns about teaching. The study resulted in the identification of three developmental levels of teacher concern.Another model for beginning teacher growth comes from Frances Fuller. Even though Fuller identified these Stages of Concern over forty years ago, they are still relevant to beginning teachers today.Source: Fuller, F Concerns of teachers: A developmental continuum. American Educational Research Journal 6 (2):TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
65The Stages of Concern Stage 1: Survival Stage 2: Task Stage 3: Impact 65The Stages of ConcernStage 1: SurvivalStage 2: TaskStage 3: ImpactThe Stages of Concern describe teacher development, including the first year in the classroom and beyond. As with any developmental sequence, remember that this one is not linear. Beginning teachers, in fact all teachers, may pass through the stages many times in their careers.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
66The SURVIVAL Stage Survival Stage Stage One Self 66Survival StageStage OneSelfSupport mentors can provide beginning teachers during the Survival Stage:Look for opportunities to provide specific praiseShow interest in the beginning teachers’ ideasFacilitate reflection on things that are going well and on how setbacks can be avoided in the futureInvite beginning teachers to social and professional activitiesShare coping skillsEncourage beginning teachers to live balanced lives with time for self, family, and friendsThink about what it’s like to learn something for the first time, whether it’s cooking, caring for your first pet, or even swimming. When learning to swim, we are just trying to keep our heads above water. How do you think teachers are feeling in the Survival Stage?Fuller’s Stage 1 is similar to Moir’s Phase 2. At this stage, beginning teachers talk a lot about “I” and “me.” They feel that no one else understands them. Mentors need to be aware of and listen for key phrases that indicate this focus on self.When beginning teachers are in the Survival Stage, they need different kinds of support than they will at other stages. The following are the kinds of support mentors can provide beginning teachers during the Survival Stage. Mentors should:Look for opportunities to provide specific praise;Show interest in the beginning teachers’ ideas;Facilitate reflection on things that are going well and on how setbacks can be avoided in the future;Invite beginning teachers to social and professional activities;Share coping skills; andEncourage beginning teachers to live balanced lives with time for self, family, and friends.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
67The TASK Stage Task Stage Survival Stage Stage Two Time/ Stage One 67The TASK StageStage TwoStage OneTask StageTime/TaskSelfSurvival StageIn the Task Stage, we are able to stay afloat by dog paddling. We are starting to learn some other strokes.In the Task Stage, teachers are primarily concerned with the tasks of teaching. They may feel overwhelmed with all the intricacies of educating and the limited amount of time in which to complete all the tasks they have on their plates. Beginning teachers in this stage may feel as if they are working as hard as they can but still cannot get everything done.When beginning teachers are in the Task Stage, mentors need to provide support that is appropriate for this stage of concern. The following are the kinds of support mentors can provide beginning teachers during the Task Stage. Mentors should:Help beginning teachers prioritize all of their tasks;Invite beginning teachers to look at and adapt lesson plans;Share methods of accomplishing common teaching and management tasks;Arrange for beginning teachers to speak to and observe other colleagues; andInvite beginning teachers to reflect on their rationales for instructional decisions.Note that this stage is similar to Moir’s Phase 4, which was covered earlier in the module.Support mentors can provide beginning teachers during the Task Stage:Help beginning teachers prioritize all of their tasksInvite beginning teachers to look at and adapt lesson plansShare methods of accomplishing common teaching and management tasksArrange for beginning teachers to speak to and observe other colleaguesInvite beginning teachers to reflect on their rationales for instructional decisionsTxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
68The IMPACT Stage Impact Stage Task Stage Survival Stage Stage Three 68The IMPACT StageStage ThreeStage TwoStage OneImpact StageStudentLearningTime/TaskTask StageSurvival StageSelfThe Impact Stage is similar to Moir’s Phase 5. In the Impact Stage, the beginning teacher is having the most effect on students and their learning. This stage is where we would like them to be. It is the mentor’s job to listen and watch for ways to help the beginning teacher move to this stage. However, the mentor should always be cognizant of the phases a teacher goes through and how those phases might align with the Stages of Concern. Mentors need to be aware of all the signs beginning teachers exhibit in order to provide the most appropriate support in the moment.In the Impact Stage, the beginning teacher is having the most effect on students and their learning. It is the mentor’s job to listen and watch for ways to help the beginning teacher move to this stage. The mentor should always be cognizant of the phases a teacher goes through and how those phases might align with the Stages of Concern.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
6969“The most important characteristic of a successful mentor is a commitment to provide personal time and attention to the beginner.”“How to Help Beginning Teachers Succeed”By Steven GordonThrough this kind of personalized time and attention, mentors can determine where beginning teachers are in their phases of development and stages of concern and can tailor support accordingly.TxBESS Phases and Stages ModuleTexas State Board for Educator Certification
70sources:Succeed at Coaching, Mentoring and Supervision, NC State University College of Education, Reiman & Oja, 2003Texas Beginning Educator Support System (TxBESS), 2005
71Contact information:Michelle Williams-Laing, Director of the Professional Development Center, ,Texas Education Agency State Board for Educator CertificationCapitol Station, P.O. Box 12728Austin, TXResources for Learning206 Wild Basin Rd., Bldg. A, Suite 103Austin, TX
72Certificate of Completion Texas Woman’s UniversityCollege of Professional EducationProvider Number:“Guiding the Beginning Teacher” Mentor TrainingHas completed the above Professional Development Program and has earned1 Clock Hour ofContinuing Professional Education (CPE)Spring 2015