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CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE If it wasn't controlled, your cells would continue to grow and divide...over and over again! A number of proteins regulate and.

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Presentation on theme: "CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE If it wasn't controlled, your cells would continue to grow and divide...over and over again! A number of proteins regulate and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE If it wasn't controlled, your cells would continue to grow and divide...over and over again! A number of proteins regulate and control the cell cycle. Tell the cell when is the proper time to grow and divide, Stop the cell when the time's not right. Clinically, cancer can be described as uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation Understanding cell cycle control has many implications for cancer, especially for the development of therapeutics.

3 If it wasn't controlled, your cells would continue to grow and divide...over and over again! A number of proteins regulate and control the cell cycle. Tell the cell when is the proper time to grow and divide, Stop the cell when the time's not right. Clinically, cancer can be described as uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation Understanding cell cycle control has many implications for cancer, especially for the development of therapeutics. Control of the cell cycle

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5 CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE Three checkpoints: The G1/S cell cycle checkpoint G2/M DNA damage checkpoint Mitosis checkpoint Animation

6 G1/S cell cycle checkpoint controls the passage of eukaryotic cells from the first 'gap' phase (G1) into the DNA synthesis phase (S). Checks: That the size is CORRECT That the environment is CORRECT External agents regulate progression Kinases – add a phosphate group (phosphorylate)

7 G1/S cell cycle checkpoint How do they do that? Major proteins involved: Cyclins (proteins) - level fluctuate in the cell cycle. & Cyclin dependent KINASES* (Cdks) They add phosphate groups to proteins that control processes in the cell cycle. They only do this when the cyclins are present. *Kinases – add a phosphate group (phosphorylate)

8 FLICKING THE SWITCH ON

9 External Controls? Many different stimuli exert G1 checkpoint control including DNA damage, contact inhibition and growth factor withdrawal. They act to inhibit kinases (in a mechanism similar to Jacob Monod). Growth factors, promoting cell division, stimulate transcription of Cyclins

10 A key characteristic of stem cells is that they can divide for long periods of time in an environment where most other cells are quiescent, prompting the question of how they overcome the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle. Hatfield et al. used fruit fly germline stem cells carrying a mutation in dicer-1, a gene essential for miRNA biogenesis, to show that miRNAs are required for stem cells to bypass the G1/S checkpoint. This suggests that miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism that makes stem cells insensitive to environmental stimuli that would normally halt most cells at the G1/S checkpoint. The implication is that the mechanism used by stem cells to overcome this checkpoint could possibly be usurped by tumor cells.

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13 G2/M DNA damage checkpoint The G2/M DNA damage checkpoint prevents the cell from entering mitosis (M phase) if the genome is damaged. It also checks if the cell is big enough (i.e. has the resources to undergo mitosis) Almost exclusively, internally controlled Kinases – add a phosphate group (phosphorylate)

14 M checkpoint The M checkpoint is where the attachment of the spindle fibres to the centromeres is assessed. Only if this is correct can mitosis proceed. Failure to attach spindle fibres correctly would lead to failure to separate chromosomes Kinases – add a phosphate group (phosphorylate)

15 Fusion of mitotic cell with cells in other stages of the cell-cycle causes chromosomes of the other cell to condense and the nucleus to breakdown. Mitotic cells must contain a mitosis -promoting factor (MPF) – produced at the end of G2? MITOSIS PROMOTING FACTOR

16 MPF may: phosphorylate histone protein H1 to condense chromatin. phosphorylate nuclear lamins to break nuclear envelope. phosphorylate MAPs (microtubule-associated proteins) resulting in the formation of spindle

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18 Summary of Controls: Three checkpoints, G1 – assesses cell size, environment (contact inhibition) G2 – assesses success of DNA replication M – assesses have spindle fibres attached correctly to the chromosomes Mitosis promoting factor - a protein (or number of proteins) which causes chromosomes to condense, nuclear membrane to disappear and so cells to enter mitosis

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