A word taken directly from another language, e.g., the English word bulldozer pure borrowing (Rice Cooker) naturalized borrowing (Computer-komputer) Borrowing
Calque. A foreign word or phrase translated and incorporated into another language, e.g., fin de semaine from the English weekend interest rate translated into tingkat suku bunga. Calque
Literal translation. Word for word translation, e.g., The ink is on the table and L’encre est sur la table. Literal translation translates the meaning of every word in the original language, understood correctly in context, into its nearest English equivalent, and attempts to express the result with ordinary English word order and style, as far as that is possible without distorting the meaning of the original. The main point is that essentially literal translations attempt to represent the meaning of every word in the original in some way or other in the resulting translation. Literal Translation Terjemahan Harfiah
Shift Transposition A shift of word class, i.e., verb for noun, noun for preposition e.g., Expéditeur and From. When there is a shift between two signifiers, it is called crossed transposition, e.g., He limped across the street and Il a traversé la rue en boitant. Modulation A shift in point of view. Whereas transposition is a shift between grammatical categories, modulation is a shift in cognitive categories.
A shift from singular into plural (plural into singular) bunga-bunga : flower s banyak rumah : many house s tiga mobil : three car s sepasang celana : a pair of trouser s Transposition Shift
A structural change that involves word-position in phrase rumah - bercat merah - yang besar big - red - house
long - dark – hair rambut - hitam pekat - yang panjang Splendid ancient electric train kereta api listrik kuno yang sangat bagus (Machali, 2000)
phrase with adverb 1 – 2 – 3 3 – highly - recommended - system sistem - yang sangat - direkomendasikan
A structural change that involves word-position in sentence Isu tentang HAM sudah kami bahas semenjak lima tahun yang lalu. We have been discussing the issue of human rights since five years ago Buku ini harus kamu baca You must read the book
a change in part of speech noun + noun noun + noun adverb + verb verb + noun adj + noun verb + adj
mesin pembunuh killing machine bahan kimia chemical material partai politik political party...is categorically prohibited. … dikategorikan terlarang.
in sentence …… for the pursuit of happiness. …untuk meraih/ mengejar kebahagiaan.
from explicit into implicit (implicit into explicit) Pria yang berdiri di sana itu adalah paman saya The man (who is) standing there is my uncle. implicit T he man standing there is my uncle
from clause into particular type of phrase (phrase into clause) – (phrase with adjective verb) bayi yang menangis crying baby binatang yang berpikir thinking animal burung yang berkicau singing bird Jendral yang senantiasa tersenyum Smiling General
from word into phrase or clause (clause into word) cozy suasana nyaman, hangat, dan akrab incommunicado kondisi terputus komunikasi dengan dunia luar interchangeability kondisi bisa saling dipertukarkan
Modulation. A shift in point of view. Whereas transposition is a shift between grammatical categories, modulation is a shift in cognitive categories. Vinay and Darbelnet postulate eleven types of modulation: abstract for concrete, cause for effect, means for result, a part for the whole, geographical change, etc., e.g., the geographical modulation between encre de Chine and Indian ink. you are going to have a child translated as Anda akan menjadi seorang bapak. I cut my finger translated as Jariku teriris, bukan saya memotong jariku. Modulation Modulasi
Modulation specific meaning padi gabah beras nasi kakak adik general meaning rice brother, sister
paklek: paman : uncle pakde: paman : uncle assassinate: membunuh Murder: membunuh kill: membunuh Anggur: grape anggur: wine mendengar: listen mendengar: hear
coining a new term for a series of word train: berlatih Training: pelatihan trainer: pelatih trainee: peserta pelatihan
Equivalence. This accounts for the same situation using a completely different phrase, e.g., the translation of proverbs or idiomatic expressions like, Comme un chien dans un jeu de quilles and Like a bull in a china shop. Vinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording. They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. Equivalence
Adaptation. A shift in cultural environment, i.e., to express the message using a different situation, e.g. cycling for the French, cricket for the English and baseball for theAmericans. Re-writing process of the source text into the target text. Usually applied in translating poetry and drama Replacing cultural elements of the source language by the cultural equivalence in the target language. Example: as white as snow seputih kapas, not seputih salju as snow is not familiar in the target language. Adaptation