2Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children.- Tribe Unknown
3WIIFM: What they contributed Food Weapons and Tools Military Medal of Honor RecipientsUSARMYUSNUSMCNavajo Code TalkersPFC Ira Hamilton Hayes, USMC
4Contributions: Food Chewing Gum (Aztecs) Freeze Drying (Inca) Chocolate (Maya)Vanilla (Tribes from Mexico)Popcorn (Central American Tribes)
5Weapons and Tools: Parkas (Inuit) Snow Goggles (Inuit) Syringes Duck Decoys (Found in Nevada in 1924, dated 2000 years old),Moccasins (Distinct patterns could tell tribes apart.)Camouflage (Created art of blending for hunting and warfare. )Dental Care (North Americans scrubbed teeth with sticks. Aztecs applied salt and Charcoal.)
6World War ICherokee troops with the 30th Infantry Division in September 1918.Choctaw had contributed to winning numerous battles in WWI using their native language as Code Talkers.
7Navajo Code Talkers WWII Main task of NCT was to transmit information and talk on troop movement, tactics, order, and all crucial battlefield information.Used native dialects over radio and telegraphsMessages could be relayed in a few minutesMore than 400 Navajo Code TalkersLess than 30 Non-Navajo persons that could understand the unwritten language.
8Navajo Code Talkers cont. The Navajo Code Talkers were extremely difficult to comprehend and understand except by the one who were raised speaking this language.
10PFC Ira H. Hayes, USMCPrivate First Class Hayes, USMC, a Pima Native American, from ArizonaHayes was one of the four Marines in the Iwo Jima flag-raising photograph.
11Medal of Honor Native American Recipients Ernest E. Evans. A half-Cherokee and one-quarter-Creek, a Naval Academy graduate, and a Lieutenant Commander serving onboard USS Johnston (DD-557). During the Battle off Samar on 25 October 1944 Johnston formed part of Task Unit (Taffy 3), which came under attack by a vastly superior Japanese force comprising battleships, heavy and light cruisers and destroyers. In spite of the odds, Evans gave orders to close the range and prepare for a torpedo attack, informing his crew that "survival cannot be expected." As his ship and the other destroyers of Taffy 3 drove the attack home, Japanese fire took the inevitable toll. After unloosing a spread of torpedoes, Johnston was so badly damaged that Evans had to give the order to abandon ship. It is uncertain whether Evans died of wounds on board his ship or drowned after jumping into the water, but he was not among the Johnston's crew who were rescued. For his gallantry and unwavering courage that materially aided in the warding off of the Japanese force, Ernest E. Evans was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.James E. Williams. A Cherokee from South Carolina and Boatswain's Mate First Class. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a member of River Section 531 during combat operations on the Mekong River in the Republic of Vietnam. Under the leadership of Petty Officer Williams, who demonstrated unusual professional skill and indomitable courage throughout the three hour battle, the patrol accounted for the destruction or loss of sixty-five enemy boats and inflicted numerous casualties on the enemy personnel. His extraordinary heroism and exemplary fighting spirit in the face of grave risks inspired the efforts of his men to defeat a larger enemy force, and are in keeping with the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service.Michael E. Thornton. A Cherokee from South Carolina and Engineman Second Class. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while participating in a daring operation against enemy forces in the Republic of Vietnam on October 31, Petty Officer Thornton, an assistant U.S. Navy advisor, along with a U.S. Navy lieutenant serving as senior advisor, accompanied a three-man Vietnamese Navy SEAL patrol in an operation against an enemy river base. As the patrol approached its objective on foot, it came under heavy fire from a numerically superior force. The patrol called in naval gunfire support and then engaged the enemy in a fierce firefight before moving back to the waterline to prevent encirclement. Upon learning that the senior advisor had been hit by enemy fire and was believed to be dead, Petty Officer Thornton returned through a hail of fire to the lieutenant's last position, quickly disposed of two enemy soldiers, and succeeded in removing the seriously wounded and unconscious senior naval advisor. At water’s edge, he inflated the lieutenant's life jacket and towed him seaward for approximately two hours until they were picked up by a support craft. By his extraordinary courage and perseverance, Petty Officer Thornton was directly responsible for saving the life of his superior officer and enabling the safe extraction of all patrol members, thereby upholding the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
14Native People TodayNative people are America’s most rural population, and tribal lands consist over five percent of the nation’s land base - an area that would make Indian Country the nation’s fourth largest state with a population of over 5 million.
15Cultural Revival Native languages are in a state of emergency Indian Boarding SchoolsChildren were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names.The number of children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973Native languages are in a state of emergencyLost generation of speakersOf 175 spoken languages, 100 are critically endangeredProtection of tribal cultural resources is also critical to preserving tribal culture. Specifically, Native languages are an irreplaceable part of Native religions, ceremonial practices, and cultural heritage.
16Cultural Revival (Cont.) Protection of tribal cultural resources is also critical to preserving tribal culture. Specifically, Native languages are an irreplaceable part of Native religions, ceremonial practices, and cultural heritage.Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975Pow WowLocal Tribal Education
17REFERENCES:NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICCALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATIONNAVAL HISTORY AND HERITAGE COMMANDDEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRSPreservation of Native Languages