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Origin of Life on Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Origin of Life on Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origin of Life on Earth

2 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible
Physical and chemical processes on Earth may have produces simple cells on earth. The process of make these cells include: 1. Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules 2. Joining of these small molecules into macromolecules 3. Packaging of molecules into protocells (Protobiants) 4. Origin of self-replicating molecules

3 Synthesis of Organic Compounds
Earth’s early atmosphere likely contained water vapor and chemicals released by volcanic. (C02, N2, Hydrogen Sulfide H2S, Sulfur Dioxide S2O) In the 1920s, A. I. Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane hypothesized that the early atmosphere was a reducing (Electron-Adding) environment. In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted lab experiments that showed that the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in a reducing atmosphere is possible Miller-Urey–type experiments demonstrate that organic molecules could have formed with various possible atmospheres

4 Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules
RNA monomers have been produced spontaneously from simple molecules. Amino acid polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand, clay, or rock. This proved that is it possible for these molecules to function as a catalyst.

5 Protocells Replication and metabolism are key properties of life and may have appeared together Protocells may have been fluid-filled vesicles with a membrane-like structure In water, lipids and other organic molecules can spontaneously form vesicles with a lipid bilayer Vesicles exhibit simple reproduction and metabolism and maintain an internal chemical environment

6 an index of vesicle number
Figure 25.3 0.4 Precursor molecules plus montmorillonite clay an index of vesicle number Relative turbidity, 0.2 Precursor molecules only 20 40 60 Time (minutes) (a) Self-assembly 1 m Vesicle boundary Figure 25.3 Features of abiotically produced vesicles. 20 m (b) Reproduction (c) Absorption of RNA

7 RNA and Self-Replication
The first genetic material was probably RNA, not DNA RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reaction -For example, ribozymes can make complementary copies of short stretches of RNA Vesicles with RNA capable of replication would have been protocells RNA could have provided the template for DNA, a more stable genetic material

8 Origin of Life RecAp

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