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1 A Census of the Universe Chris Pearson : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) http ://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cpp/

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Presentation on theme: "1 A Census of the Universe Chris Pearson : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) http ://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cpp/"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 A Census of the Universe Chris Pearson : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) http ://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cpp/

3 2 The Life of an Astronomer Rocks from space!!!!! Arizona Meteor Crater When I am not working I play : TAE KWON DO ! My name is : Chris Pearson ( 梨村栗好 ) I work at : The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, in Japan. University of Kent, Imperial College London, Sussex University in the U.K. My job is : Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Surveys = Mapping the Universe !

4 3 The Life of an Astronomer I have a research Fellowship from the European Union In the U.K. I work between University of Kent Imperial College London Sussex University These days I am working at the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

5 4 The Life of an Astronomer My life outside Astronomy When I‘m not working I play : TAE KWON DO !

6 5 The Life of an Astronomer But, I get to go to nice places

7 6 The Life of an Astronomer Mauna Kea Volcano Summit in Hawaiiハワイの火山の頂上での天文台ハワイの火山の頂上での天文台

8 7 University of Kent at Canterbury Cathedral Town Message from Astronomers at the University of Kent

9 8 University of Kent at Canterbury SPACE SCHOOL 2002 Organized by The University of Kent for local middle and high school students

10 9 A Census of the Universe QUESTIONS WE WOULD LIKE TO ASK ? M Where are we in the Universe ? M How old is the Universe ? M How did the Universe Begin ? M How will the Universe end ? M How much stuff is there in the Universe ? WHAT’S OUR ADDRESS ?? WHERE DO WE LIVE ?? WE NEED A GOOD MAP !!

11 10 Our Address in the Universe 町 - My Town 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市

12 11 Our Address in the Universe ロンドン大都市 - The London Area 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン

13 12 Our Address in the Universe 英国 ー 国 - My Country 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス

14 13 Our Address in the Universe 国々 ー 世界 - The World

15 14 Our Address in the Universe 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 地球 - The Planet

16 15 Our Address in the Universe 地球 太陽 - 地球 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム ソーラーシステム - 惑星 - The Solar System

17 16 Our Address in the Universe 太陽 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川 - The Milky Way オリオン渦巻腕 - Orion Spiral Arm うずまきわん

18 17 Our Address in the Universe 太陽 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 天の川銀河系 - Our Galaxy

19 18 Our Address in the Universe 天の川銀河系 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy The Local Group 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 局部銀河群 きょくぶぎんがぐん 局部銀河群 - The Local Group

20 19 Our Address in the Universe 局部銀河群 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy The Local Group near the Virgo Cluster 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 局部銀河群 乙女座の銀河団の辺 おとめざ ぎんがだん 乙女座の銀河団の辺 - in vicinity of Virgo Cluster

21 20 Our Address in the Universe 近い宇宙 乙女座の銀河団の辺 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy The Local Group near the Virgo Cluster Local Supercluster 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 局部銀河群 乙女座の銀河団の辺 局部超銀河団 きょくぶちょうぎんがだん 局部超銀河団 - Local Supercluster

22 21 Our Address in the Universe 近い宇宙 ( 局部超銀河団 ) 35 Lavidge Road Greenwich London England Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy The Local Group near the Virgo Cluster Local Supercluster The Universe 35 ラビッジ ロード グリニッジ市 ロンドン イギリス 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 局部銀河群 乙女座の銀河団の辺 局部超銀河団 宇宙 〒000 001 宇宙 - The Universe

23 22 Your Address in the Universe …………………. ………. - shi Kanagawa-ken 229- Japan Planet Earth Solar System Spiral Arm of Orion Milky Way Galaxy The Local Group near the Virgo Cluster Local Supercluster The Universe __________ _______ − 市 神奈川 − 県 229ー 日本 地球 ソーラーシステム オリオンの渦巻腕 天の川銀河系 局部銀河群 乙女座の銀河団の辺 局部超銀河団 宇宙 〒000 001 Where do you live ?

24 23 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

25 24 slit prism The Sun screen Thermometer Infra Red Light Normal Visible Light INFRARED (UV light) Sir Frederick William Herschel ( )

26 25 Infra Red Light Energy of radiation depends on its’ TEMPERATURE Wavelength of radiation depends on its’ TEMPERATURE High Temperature  radiate at shorter wavelengths Cooler Temperature  radiate at longer wavelengths Infra Red Light UV Light UV Light

27 26 Infra Red Light Energy radiated  (Temperature) 4 Deserts absorb/radiate heat quickly Land radiates more energy than sea High clouds cooler than low clouds

28 27 Infra Red Light Different colors absorb different amounts of heat Were used to write the names of the colors used on a white piece of paper Paper is then put outside in warm sunlight Infra Red picture taken after 1 minute Brighter areas show colors which are warmer because they absorb more heat from the sun. Notice how the color black is the warmest, followed by blue, green, red, yellow and then white Wear light colored clothing on a hot day !! keeps you cooler outdoors

29 28 The Infra Red ZOO !! How different would our world look through infrared eyes ?

30 29 WHY Infra Red Light ?

31 30 WHY Infra Red Light ?

32 31 WHY Infra Red Light ? The stars we see represent only a fraction of the light in the Universe Stars are born inside giant gas clouds  Youngest Stars are HIDDEN ! Young stars gradually blow away surrounding gas and dust Eventually become bright and visible !!

33 32 WHY Infra Red Light ? The stars we see represent only a fraction of the light in the Universe Dust clouds between the stars obscure large regions The visible light coming from objects behind the dust cloud is BLOCKED! Infrared light shows where the Universe is cold and where it’s hot ! Infrared light shows us where hot young stars are being born : Young Stars emit strong UV/visible light : this is short wavelength : Dust absorbs this light : Dust is heated : Dust re- emits light in infrared region : this is long wavelength

34 33 WHY Infra Red Light ? o What we see depends on the wavelength (colour) of IR light o Short wavelengths see through the dust  Old stars o Longer wavelength sees heat from the dust  Young stars Looking at the Universe at different wavelengths gives us completely different pictures

35 34 WHY from Space ? =10 2 Hz =10 6 m E= eV =10 30 Hz = m E=10 9 eV ~30 powers of 10 Optical light spans barely an order of magnitude !! WHY from Space ?

36 35 WHY from Space ? 1983 IRAS 1985 IRTS 1997 ISO 2003 SPITZER 2006 ASTRO-F

37 36 WHY from Space ? For infrared astronomy - Need to launch telescopes into space !

38 37 The Infra Red Universe NGC7331: Our Galaxy’s Twin Brother 50 Million Light Years in Pegasus Discovered by Herschel in 1784 Optical, short IRAC, long IRAC, composite IRAC image Short wavelengths - StarsLong wavelengths - PAH emission

39 38 The Infra Red Universe Through the Infra Red Looking Glass

40 39 The ASTRO-F Mission ASTRO-F

41 40 The ASTRO-F Mission 69cm Ritchey-Chretien cooled telescope FIR All Sky Survey NIR-FIR deep imaging & spectroscopy Launch: ISAS MV–6 in Summer 2005 Sun-synchronous polar orbit Mission lifetime: ~ 550 days + ISAS/SNU /IC/Kent/Sussex /SRON/ESA Second Japanese space infrared mission

42 41 The ASTRO-F Mission IRC FIS

43 42 Mapping the Universe ASTRO-F will: n Make a map of the entire Universe n Discover Millions of new galaxies n Measure how fast these galaxies are making stars n Discover when Galaxies made all their stars n Tell us about the Universe at different wavelengths

44 43 Mapping the Universe What will ASTRO-F see ? Galaxies Dust

45 44 Mapping the Universe n Look at a piece of the sky n Throw away all the rubbish n Mark where the galaxies are n Create a catalogue of Galaxies How do we map the Universe ?

46 45 The History of Our Universe Looking BACK in time To LARGE distances When Galaxies were YOUNGER HDF z~0.1  z ~ 1.3Gyr HDF z~1  z ~ 7.5Gyr HDF z~2  z ~ 10Gyr HDF z~3  z ~ 11Gyr Nearby Galaxies Today 1,000,000,000 years ago 10,000,000,000 years ago11,000,000,000 years ago 8,000,000,000 years ago We want to see if far away galaxies are different from nearby galaxies ??

47 46 The History of Our Universe n When were the galaxies born? n When did they make their stars?

48 47 What is Our Universe Made of ? WMAP Probe  a different temperature map The very early Universe We don’t know what 96% of the Universe is even made of !!!

49 48 What is Our Universe Made of ? Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe

50 49 The Universe Now and Then Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe The Universe Now and Then Galaxies are made at places where the Universe is most dense

51 50 The Universe Now and Then Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe The ASTRO-F dark Energy Project time The WMAP Universe The ASTRO-F Universe

52 51 Our Amazing Universe !! n We want a multi-wavelength map of the Universe !

53 52 Things to “Keep in Mind” We only see a tiny fraction of the Universe with our eyes (visible light) Looking in the infrared  we can see heat emission from objects The Universe looks completely different in the Infra-Red We need to launch rockets to get our infrared telescopes above the atmosphere With infrared space telescopes we can see new stars being born in young galaxies We will make a infrared map of the entire Universe with ASTRO-F “The Universe is not made of Atoms it is made of Stories” — Muriel Rukeyser ( ) poet. “The Universe is not made of Atoms it is made of Stories” — Muriel Rukeyser ( ) poet. どうもありがとうございます !

54 53 終終


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