# Chapter 15 Review Earth’s Oceans.

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Chapter 15 Review Earth’s Oceans

Organize the following points from shallowest to deepest.
Measuring Ocean Depth Sonar Time lapse Depth of Ocean A 6 seconds ___ B 4.5 seconds 3375 m C 2 seconds D 3750 m (Hint: Sound travels through water at 1500 m/s) A, B, D, C C, A, B, D D, B, A, C C, D, B, A

What is the depth of the ocean at points A and C?
Measuring Ocean Depth Sonar Time lapse Depth of Ocean A 6 seconds ___ B 4.5 seconds 3375 m C 2 seconds D 3750 m What is the depth of the ocean at points A and C? (Hint: Sound travels through water at 1500 m/s) 4500 m and 1500 m 9000 m and 3000 m 6000 m and 2000 m 3000 m and 1000 m

(Hint: Sound travels through water at 1500 m/s)
Measuring Ocean Depth Sonar Time lapse Depth of Ocean A 6 seconds ___ B 4.5 seconds 3375 m C 2 seconds D 3750 m If the ocean is 3750 feet deep at point D, how long was the time lapse? (Hint: Sound travels through water at 1500 m/s) 4 seconds 1.25 seconds 5 seconds 10 seconds

Which ocean location would have the lowest amount of salinity?
equatorial regions subtropical ocean regions polar regions estuaries

Which ocean location would have the highest amount of salinity?
equatorial regions subtropical ocean regions polar regions estuaries

Which part of the wave moves steadily forward?
the crest the trough the water the energy

The vertical distance between trough and crest is 1. 7m
The vertical distance between trough and crest is 1.7m. What is this measuring? the wavelength the wave height the wave base the wave direction

If the wavelength of this wave is 4
If the wavelength of this wave is 4.2m, at what depth does water movement stop? 8.4m 4.2m 2.1m 0.7m

Which of the following is NOT a factor in wave height?
fetch wind direction wind duration wind speed

What tidal cycle is graphed?
Semidiurnal Mixed Diurnal Duodiurnal

At what point during the day is the tide at its lowest?
6:00 am 10:00 am 1:00 pm 4:00 pm

Analyze the diagram. What type of tides will be created as a result of this alignment?
spring tides new tides fall tides neap tides

During this alignment, how will the tides be affected?
High tides will be higher and low tides will be lower. High tides will be higher and low tides will be higher. High tides will be lower and low tides will be lower. High tides will be lower and low tides will be higher.

As surface water moves away from the California coast, what brings deep water up to replace the surface water? gyres upwelling surface currents density currents

Which of the following was the first expedition to use scientific measuring devices to study the ocean? SEASAT expedition Meteor expedition Poseidon expedition Challenger expedition

Which of the following correctly describes the order of the steps involved in the formation of sea ice? ice crystals, pancake ice, slush, pack ice slush, ice crystals, pancake ice, pack ice ice crystals, slush, pack ice, pancake ice ice crystals, slush, pancake ice, pack ice

After volcanism created Earth's atmosphere, what happened next to lead to the formation of oceans?
Earth’s crust cooled. Ice caps melted. Meteorite strikes stopped. Carbon dioxide and other gases formed in the crust.

Which of the following is NOT true of global sea level?
Global sea level can rise in response to the melting of glaciers. Tectonic forces cannot affect global sea level. Average global sea level is rising today by 1 to 2 mm per year. During an ice age, global sea levels drop.

Which of the following affects the density of seawater?
salinity melting point hydrogen bonds breakers

What is the average surface temperature of the ocean?

located off the east coast of the United States
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

covers 81 percent of the surface in the southern hemisphere
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

larger than all of Earth’s landmasses combined
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

the third-largest ocean
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

contains roughly half of Earth’s seawater
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

north of the Arctic Circle is often known as the Arctic Ocean
Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean

Vertical movement of nutrient-rich ocean water
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Occurs during a first-quarter and third-quarter moon
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

The vertical distance between a wave's crest and trough
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Closed, circular current systems
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Determines the speed with which waves move through deep water
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

The difference between the levels of high and low tide
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Collapsing waves wave height tidal range gravitation breakers
neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Move slowly in deep ocean waters
wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Basic cause of tides wave height tidal range gravitation breakers
neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength

Measure of the amount of dissolved salts in seawater
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level breaker temperature profile thermocline salinity crest trough

Periodic rise and fall of sea level
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity temperature profile thermocline wave tide trough

Technique that directs sound waves toward the ocean floor at an angle to map its topographic features oceanography breaker sea level salinity temperature profile thermocline side-scan sonar crest trough

Current caused by wind oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity
temperature profile surface current wave crest trough

Set of data that plots changing water temperature with depth
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity breaker temperature profile wave crest trough

Lowest point of a wave oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity
temperature profile thermocline wave crest trough

Current caused by differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level density current temperature profile thermocline wave crest trough

Highest point of a wave oceanography side-scan sonar sea level
salinity temperature profile thermocline wave breaker crest

Scientific study of Earth’s oceans
breaker side-scan sonar oceanography salinity temperature profile thermocline wave crest trough

Level of the ocean’s surface
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity temperature profile thermocline wave crest trough

Upward motion of ocean water
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity upwelling thermocline wave crest trough

Rhythmic movement that carries energy through matter
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity temperature profile wave breaker crest trough

Transitional layer of the ocean characterized by rapidly decreasing temperatures with depth
oceanography side-scan sonar sea level salinity thermocline breaker wave crest trough

Sidescan sonar is used to map the ocean floor.
True False

Scientists believe that comet strikes may have been one source of the water in Earth's oceans.
True False

Roughly half of all Earth's seawater is contained in the Atlantic Ocean.
True False

Melting sea ice lowers the salinity of seawater in polar regions.
True False

Both the thermocline and the surface layer are absent in low latitudes.
True False

The bottom layer of ocean water is formed in polar seas.
True False

Breakers are formed by the action of friction between the wave and the ocean bottom.
True False

The depth to which a wave disturbs the water is called the wave height.
True False

The greatest tidal ranges occur in the Gulf of Mexico.
True False

The mechanism by which water deep within Earth’s interior is brought to the surface is volcanism.
True False

The oceans contain 97 percent of Earth’s water, and saltwater sources contain 3 percent.
True False

Today, the thickening of glaciers is causing a slow rise in the average global sea level.
True False

Dissolved salts, gases, and nutrients are present in seawater in the form of ions.
True False

As marine organisms die, their solid parts drift to the bottom of the ocean, causing salts to be added to seawater. True False

The freezing point of salt water is somewhat higher than that of freshwater.
True False

Oceans are dark below the depth of about 100 m.
True False

The surface layer and the bottom layer are absent in polar seas.
True False

The coldest and densest water mass in all the oceans is Antarctic Bottom Water.
True False

Earth’s tidal bulges are always aligned with the Sun.
True False

Closed, circular surface current systems are called density currents.
True False

Upwelling waters bring nutrients to the ocean’s surface.
True False