2 The Earth as a SystemIntegrated system of rock, air, water, and living things.This system is divided into four parts:atmosphere (air)hydrosphere (water)biosphere (living things)geosphere (rock)
3 GeosphereSolid part of the Earth’s crust that consists of all rock, and the soils and sediments on Earth’s surface.Most located in Earth’s interior
4 Earth’s InteriorSeismic Waves: the waves that travel through the Earth’s interior during an earthquake.Altered by the type of material that it travels through.
5 SeismologistsScientists who measure changes in these waves to determine that the earth’s interior is made in layers.
6 Composition of the Earth Three layers:crustmantlecoreDensity increases towards the center of the Earth
7 Crust Thin, outer layer. Made up of light elements less than 1% of Earth’s mass5-70km thick
8 Mantle Layer beneath the crust 64% of mass of Earth 2,900 km thick Made oflithosphereasthenospheremesosphere
9 Lithosphere Outer layer cool, rigid divided up into huge tectonic plates
10 Asthenosphere 250 km thick solid, plastic layer made of rock flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move across
11 Mesosphere2,250 km thick“middle” spherelower part of mantle
12 Core 3,248 km radius sphere of hot, dense nickel and iron 1/3 of the Earth’s massMade ofOuter CoreInner Core
13 Outer Core; 2,200 km thick, outer shell, made of liquid nickel and iron Inner Core: 1,228 km radius; a sphere of solid iron and nickel
14 First Life???First life may have first evolved deep in the crust and then migrated to the surface when conditions became favorable.“extremophiles”Hypothesized that the biomass below the surface far exceeds the biomass at the surface.
15 Be able to draw and label the three layers of the earth (crust, mantle, and core) as well as the 5 layers based on physical properties (lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer and inner core).