Presentation on theme: "Inside the Earth. Why is geology important? Layers of the Earth If we could take a chunk out of the Earth, we would see that it is made up of different."— Presentation transcript:
Inside the Earth
Why is geology important?
Layers of the Earth If we could take a chunk out of the Earth, we would see that it is made up of different layers.
Layers of the Earth Earth is made up of 3 main layers –Crust –Mantle –Core –Each layer has it’s own individual composition and physical properties.
Physical Properties and Composition Composition= what it’s made of Physical properties= characteristic that is unique and helps to identify the substance (temp, size, shape, color) Example: Chocolate Chip Cookies Composition- flour, eggs, sugar, chocolate chips, baking powder, butter Properties- round, rough, sweet, tan and black, hot, lumpy,
Layers of the Earth(p90) CRUST –Physical Properties: outermost layer thinnest layer (5-70km thick) Surface temperature 1% of Earth’s mass where we live touches the atmosphere –Composition: consists of loose rocks & soil
Crust Very thin
2 Types of Crust Continental Crust: dry land, granite less dense Oceanic Crust: ocean floor, Basalt, thinner than cont. crust but more dense
Layers of the Earth MANTLE –Physical Properties: thickest layer (2900km thick) F 66% of earth’s mass flowing –Composition: Molten rock –Magma
Layers of the Earth CORE –Physical properties: HOT! F Very dense High pressure 4000 miles from surface 33% of Earth’s mass About the same size as Mars –Composition: Iron and Nickel (metals)
What have you noticed about temperature and pressure? As you get deeper inside the Earth, temperature Increases As you get deeper inside the Earth, pressure Increases
Layers of the Earth The 3 main layers of the Earth can be divided further by the way they “act” within the Earth and by their different physical properties.
Lithosphere Crust and upper Mantle outermost layer – includes crust and upper mantle rigid divided into pieces or tectonic plates Rocks and soil
Asthenosphere Middle Mantle composed of solid flowing rock layer on which pieces of lithosphere move on top (solid rock that flows) –Think of it like caramel
Mesosphere Bottom Mantle strong, lower part of the mantle layer between asthenosphere and core
The Core Outer and Inner The core is divided into two parts –Outer Core: Liquid iron and nickel that’s spinning –Inner Core: Solid iron and nickel Solid because of all the pressure of the rest of the Earth surrounding it.
How do we know? Seismic waves produced by earthquakes travel at different speeds through solid rock and liquids