2Moon Facts:Distance from Earth: 384,400 km (238,855 miles)Size: 27% or 1/3 or 1/4 of Earth (~4 moons would fit across Earth)Near side = side ALWAYS facing Earth (Moon spins so slowly) Far side = side NEVER facing Earth.Rotation (day): Time to spin 360 on its axis = 27.3 days The moon rotates at the same rate as it revolves!Sidereal Revolution : Amount of time to complete a 360 orbit around Earth = 27.3 days Lunar Revolution: Amount of time it takes for the moon to cycle thru. All it its phases (new new) = 29.5 daysTemps: Extreme Hot or Cold (-170/ 110 °C) b/c no atmosphere to trap heatGravitational Pull: 17 % (1/6) of Earth’s - too weak to hold onto an atmosphereVisited: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin (on NASA's Apollo 11 mission, which also included Michael Collins) were the first people to walk on the moon, on July 20, Apollo 17 was the last mission.
3Moon Motion Rotation: Make one complete turn on an axis (a “day”) Revolution: The motion of an object around a closed orbit, following a circular or elliptical path.Sidereal Month or Revolution:The time required for the moon to complete a 360 degree revolution around Earth. (27.3 days)Link to Moon Motion Animations:
4Lunar PhasesAs moon orbits Earth, ½ is always lit … but we do not always see the entire lit ½.Phases are caused by changes in relative positions of the moon, sun, & earth as the moon revolves around earth.Takes the moon 27.3 days to complete an orbit but 29.5days for us to see it complete a cycle of phases (b/c Earth is moving too!)
5Moon Activity #1Objective: To observe and model the moon’s ROTATION & REVOLUTION around Earth. Conclusion Write-Up (Paragraph) Compare/Contrast the Moon’s rotation and revolution to Earth’s. How does this affect the view we have of the moon? How does this relate to length of day (for both)? Length of year (for both)?
6Moon Phases Nearside = side facing us Far side = never facing us Why: Moon rotates so slowly that we always see the same face. It rotates at the same speed that it revolves.Blue Moon = 2nd Full moon of a month
7Lunar PhasesEven though ½ of the moon is always lit by the sun, we see different portions of this lit ½ as the moon revolves around Earth. Phases depend on the moon’s position relative to Earth and the sun.It takes 29.5 days for the moon to go through its cycle of phases (Longer than 27.3 days…because Earth is moving around the sun and the moon has to “catch up”).
8Solar Eclipse – Sun is blocked Penumbra = “lighter” shadowPartial eclipse viewed hereUmbra =Dark shadowLocations w/in Umbra will see a total eclipseLink to Eclipse Animations:
9Eclipses don’t happen every NEW and FULL moon because the moon’s orbit is not in the same plane as the Earth’s (ecliptic). The sun, Earth, and moon have to line up in the same plane for an eclipse to happen.
10LUNAR ECLIPSE – MOON IS BLOCKED Link to Eclipse Animations:
12Moon appears reddish during a lunar eclipse b/c light is bent as it travels past Earth. When light is “bent” it appears more red.
13Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on Earth. High tides – 2 x a dayLow tide – 2 x a dayNew + Full = Spring (High tides HIGH and low tides LOW). Sun & Moon work together.Quarter moons = Neap (Not as much diff. b/w high & low tide). Sun & Moon work against each other.The sun is also “pulling” on Earth’s water. (Remember gravity depends on mass and distance. The sun is farther from Earth … but its mass is so tremendous that it pull’s on Earth’s water too). The sun has a smaller influence on tides than the moon. BUT when the moon and sun are lined up with Earth – they combine pulling forces to create HIGHER TIDES.
15The Moon Affects Earth’s Rotation! Gravity works both ways! Earth pulls on the Moon – keeping it in orbit. The Moon pulls on Earth to produce tides.The Moon pulls on Earth’s tidal bulge. This slows down Earth’s rotation. This is due to friction (a pulling force opposing motion).Earth slows down by fractions a second each year. But some of its momentum is transferred to the moon – which uses it to move farther from Earth.So the moon is slowing us down & the moon is drifting away (3.8 cm /year)!
17Moon’s Formation: Collision Theory Most widely accepted theory Mars-sized object made an off-center collision. Debris from Earth (ejecta) and pulverized Mars-sized object pull together (gravity) to form the Moon. Moon’s composition has similarities AND differences to Earth rocks – this theory supports that observation.
18Moon GeologyHighlands – lighter areas, Mts., olderMare (Maria) – Low lying, made fr. Cooled lava (basalt rock), youngerRegolith – powdery rock surface formed by impactsCraters – Main surface feature of moon – tells us that the early s.system was full of impact collisions (very violent)Rilles – Cooled lava channelsUNLIKE EARTH, THE MOON HAS NOT CHANGED MUCH IN THE LAST 3 + BILLION YEARS.
19Water on the Moon?Very small amounts of frozen water at poles – not enough to support lifeL-Cross mission just “bombed” the south pole of the moon to look for water under the surface.L-cross MissionL-cross mission (PBS)Moon’s surface has not changed much b/c there is no weather, atmosphere, or plate tectonics.
20Web links Solar Views Website http://www.solarviews.com/eng/moon.htm Moon Phase Changes
211. Which choice represents the most widely accepted scientific theory on the moon’s formation? The moon formed from the debris of a collision of a Mars-sized planet and Earth.The moon formed somewhere else in the universe and while passing Earth it was captured by Earth’s gravity and pulled into orbit.The moon formed from a ‘splash’ or part of Earth was tossed off while Earth was still molten and spinning very rapidly.The moon formed at the same time and the same way that Earth did.
22Which letter is pointing to the highland regions of the moon? 2.Which letter is pointing to the highland regions of the moon?3. Which letter represents MARIA REGIONS?B.A.4. People once thought that the darker areas were seas or oceans. This turned out to be false, but how did these darker regions form?
235a. Draw in the tidal bulge to show how the moon’s gravity affects Earth’s water. 5b. How many high tides a day? 5c. What causes tides?MEarth
246. Which choice best describes temperatures on the moon? a. Very hot all the timeb. Very cold all the timec. Very hot or very cold extremesd. Moderate temperatures
257. What type of eclipse is being shown in the diagram: Solar or Lunar? Earthmoon7. What type of eclipse is being shown in the diagram: Solar or Lunar?From Earth, will a total or partial eclipse be seen?What moon phase is it?
26 10. Which statement is true about spring tides? a. They occur during quarter moon phases.b. They occur during new and full moon phases.c. They occur during the waxing phases of the moon.d. They occur only in the spring season.11. Neap tides occur during ______ phases of the moon.
2712The powdery rock that forms the surface layer of the moon is known as: a. Regolithb. Cratersc. Penumbrad. Maria
2813. How does the moon’s mass compare to Earth? It has the same mass.It is ¾ Earth’s mass.It is ½ Earth’s mass.It is 1/3 Earth’s mass.It is 1/16 Earth’s mass.14. How does the moon’s gravity compare to Earth’s?It is 6 times greater.It is the same as Earth’s gravity.It is 1/6 Earth’s gravity.There is no gravity on the moon.
2915. If you are in the UMBRA you will see a __________ eclipse (total or partial) 16. What will the tides be like when the moon is in this position? Extreme/strong
30True or False 17. ________ The moon’s pull on Earth’s tidal bulge causes Earth to speed up in its rotation. 18. ___ The moon is the only location beyond Earth, that humans have visited. 19. ________ The moon is geologically active.