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The Moon Atmosphere? There is none! There is none! The gravity of the Moon is too low to hold on to the molecules of an atmosphere. The gravity of the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Moon Atmosphere? There is none! There is none! The gravity of the Moon is too low to hold on to the molecules of an atmosphere. The gravity of the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Moon

3 Atmosphere? There is none! There is none! The gravity of the Moon is too low to hold on to the molecules of an atmosphere. The gravity of the Moon is too low to hold on to the molecules of an atmosphere. There is water on the moon though—ice at the poles. There is water on the moon though—ice at the poles.

4 Interior Mostly made of relatively low density materials Mostly made of relatively low density materials Has a small, solid core that is also low density Has a small, solid core that is also low density The crust on the far side of the Moon from the Earth is thicker, because the mantle and core were pulled towards Earth by gravity. The crust on the far side of the Moon from the Earth is thicker, because the mantle and core were pulled towards Earth by gravity.

5 Lunar Surface Maria: large, roughly circular dark areas caused by the flow of lava when the Moon was still volcanic. Maria: large, roughly circular dark areas caused by the flow of lava when the Moon was still volcanic. Made of basalt—a dark colored, high density rock from the Moon’s mantle Made of basalt—a dark colored, high density rock from the Moon’s mantle

6 Lunar Surface Lunar highlands: light colored areas elevated several kilometers above the maria. Lunar highlands: light colored areas elevated several kilometers above the maria. Made of rocks that are light in color, rich in aluminum, and low density Made of rocks that are light in color, rich in aluminum, and low density Probably part of the original lunar crust—thrust up by the impact of meteoroids Probably part of the original lunar crust—thrust up by the impact of meteoroids

7 Cratering Impact craters are created when meteoroids, asteroids, and comets strike the moon Impact craters are created when meteoroids, asteroids, and comets strike the moon The crater is usually about 10 times the diameter of the impactor The crater is usually about 10 times the diameter of the impactor This is the only form of erosion on the Moon—it creates a thick layer of dust known as the regolith This is the only form of erosion on the Moon—it creates a thick layer of dust known as the regolith

8 Cratering Two crater types: Two crater types: Simple crater—small and deep with smooth bowl shape Simple crater—small and deep with smooth bowl shape Complex crater—large, shallow, with central peak Complex crater—large, shallow, with central peak

9 The Moon’s Origin Before the Apollo missions in the 1960’s and 70’s, there were three leading theories to the moon’s origin: Before the Apollo missions in the 1960’s and 70’s, there were three leading theories to the moon’s origin: 1. The Earth’s gravity captured it. 2. The Moon and the Earth condensed from the same cloud of dust

10 3. When it is still molten, a large object strikes the Earth. (Impact Theory) Material from both objects flies off. Material from both objects flies off. That material condenses and forms the moon That material condenses and forms the moon

11 Phases of the Moon Sunlight (1) New Moon (2) Waxing Crescent (3) First Quarter (4) Waxing Gibbous (5) Full Moon (6) Waning Gibbous (7) Third Quarter (8) Waning Crescent Earth The general locations and orientations for the phases of the moon. Earth spins on its axis in the same direction as the moon’s orbit.

12 Sunlight Earth (1) New Moon How much of the moon’s face does the person see? What time of day is it for the observer? Noon!! NEW MOON Wherever the person looks all they see is shadowed moon. Perspective & The Moon’s Face

13 Sunlight Earth (2) Waxing Crescent How much of the moon’s face does the person see? What time of day is it for the observer? 3PM!! WAXING CRESCENT When you look up you see only a small crescent brightly lit. (Right Side)

14 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (3) First Quarter What time of day is it for the observer? Sunset - 6PM!! FIRST QUARTER When you look up you see one half of the front face of the Moon brightly lit. (Right side) How much of the moon’s face does the person see?

15 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (4) Waxing Gibbous How much of the moon’s face does the person see? What time of day is it for the observer? 9PM!! WAXING GIBBOUS When you look up you see only a small crescent, darkly shadowed, on the left.

16 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (5) Full Moon How much of the moon’s face does the person see? What time of day is it for the observer? Midnight-12AM!! FULL MOON When you look up you see the entire face of the Moon brightly lit.

17 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (6) Waning Gibbous How much of the moon’s face does the person see? What time of day is it for the observer? 3AM!! WANING GIBBOUS When you look up you see only a small crescent, darkly shadowed, on the right.

18 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (7) Third Quarter How much of the moon’s face does the person see? THIRD QUARTER When you look up you see one half of the front face of the Moon brightly lit. (Left side) What time of day is it for the observer? Sunrise - 6AM!!

19 Perspective & The Moon’s Face Sunlight Earth (8) Waning Crescent How much of the moon’s face does the person see? WANING CRESCENT When you look up you see only a small crescent brightly lit. (Left Side) What time of day is it for the observer? 9AM!!

20 Eclipses Although the Sun is about 400 times larger than the Moon, it is also about 400 times further away. Although the Sun is about 400 times larger than the Moon, it is also about 400 times further away. As a result of this coincidence, the Moon can completely cover the Sun, producing a total solar eclipse. As a result of this coincidence, the Moon can completely cover the Sun, producing a total solar eclipse.

21 Eclipses The shadow of any body consists of two parts: The shadow of any body consists of two parts: The umbra is the darkest part of the shadow--in the center. The umbra is the darkest part of the shadow--in the center. The penumbra a lighter shadow—on the outer edges. The penumbra a lighter shadow—on the outer edges.

22 Total Solar Eclipse Umbra Penumbra

23 Solar Eclipse A total solar eclipse occurs about once every 18 months somewhere in the world. A total solar eclipse occurs about once every 18 months somewhere in the world. At any given location, a total solar eclipse occurs once every 360 years. At any given location, a total solar eclipse occurs once every 360 years. The next total solar eclipse in the U.S. is on Aug The next total solar eclipse in the U.S. is on Aug

24 Total Solar Eclipse

25 Solar Corona During Eclipse

26 Total Solar Eclipse As the Moon orbits the Earth, its apparent size varies. As the Moon orbits the Earth, its apparent size varies. Only when the Moon is closest to the Earth can it completely block the Sun. Only when the Moon is closest to the Earth can it completely block the Sun. If the Moon does not completely cover the Sun we get an annular eclipse. If the Moon does not completely cover the Sun we get an annular eclipse.

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28 Lunar Eclipses A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth. The lunar eclipse is visible to everyone on the night side of the Earth. The lunar eclipse is visible to everyone on the night side of the Earth.

29 Lunar Eclipse

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31 NASA Eclipse Page The best web page on eclipses is: The best web page on eclipses is: pse/eclipse.html pse/eclipse.html pse/eclipse.html pse/eclipse.html

32 One reason we know the Earth is round: Early scientists determined that the Earth was round, because they recognized that its shadow was being cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse. Early scientists determined that the Earth was round, because they recognized that its shadow was being cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse. The shadow is curved. The shadow is curved.

33 Slide 32 The Tides Caused by the difference of the Moon’s gravitational attraction on the water on Earth Excess gravity pulls water towards the moon on the near side  12-hour cycle Excess centrifugal force pushes water away from the moon on the far side

34 Slide 33 Spring and Neap Tides The Sun is also producing tidal effects. Near Full and New Moon, the Sun’s gravity combines with the moon’s gravity to cause spring tides. Spring tides Neap tides

35 Slide 34 Near first and third quarter, Sun and Moon’s gravity are at a right angle, causing neap tides. Spring and Neap Tides

36 Slide 35 Effects of tides Slow down the rotation of earth Friction slows down the rotation The day was 18 hours long 900 mya

37 Slide 36 The Tidally-Locked Orbit of the Moon Earth exerts tidal forces on the moon’s rocky interior that slow down its rotation. It is rotating with the same period around its axis as it is orbiting Earth (tidally locked). This is why we always see the same side of the Moon.

38 Slide 37 Acceleration of the Moon’s Orbital Motion Gravitational force pulls the moon slightly forward along its orbit.


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