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Complexity: the case of development interventions aimed at changing institutional level curriculum CERI conference on Innovation, governance and reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Complexity: the case of development interventions aimed at changing institutional level curriculum CERI conference on Innovation, governance and reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complexity: the case of development interventions aimed at changing institutional level curriculum CERI conference on Innovation, governance and reform in education 2014 November 3-5 Gábor Halász ELTE University, Budapest Click on pictures in orange frame!

2 The complexity problem Two key questions raised by the GCES project of CERI –Are education systems complex systems? –What are the implications? Understanding the difference between the complicated and the complex –Difference in predictability –Difference in control

3 Implications for governance Approaches based on general legal regulation have to be complemented or replaced by new approaches, such as –Empowering key agents –Using incentives („nudging”) –Providing feedback and enhancing learning –Intensive monitoring and intervening when necessary –Building trust –Managing risks –Using targeted development interventions

4 The example of curriculum change Curriculum development and complexity Targeted development interventions in the field of curriculum: a national case

5 Some implications PROBE SENSE RESPOND

6 Thank you for your attention!

7 From simple to complex: features SimpleComplicatedComplex Assemble IKEA furniture Building a sky- scraper Creating a happy city Instructions have to be followed, no particular expertise is needed High level analysis and expertise needed Even the best analyse and expertise cannot tell us exactly what to do If instructions are correctly followed the success is guaranteed If analyses and decisions are done correctly the success is almost guaranteed Success can never be guaranteed

8 From simple to complex: action and control Source: The Cynefin model (http://cognitive-edge.com /) sense Simple systems Complicated systems Complex systems categorize sense analyse probe sense

9 The Cynefin model Source: edge.com /

10 Policies based on legal regulation and interventions RegulationIntervention TargetThe whole systemParts of the system InstrumentsLegislationTargeted resources and support Time dimension Immediate impact expected Emerging impact expected FailureNo calculation with failure Failure cases accepted as inevitable ProbabilityNo probability calculation Probability calculation is essential ComplexityComplexity not perceived Complexity assumed

11 Complexity and curriculum change A multilevel/multi-actor understanding of curriculum A challenge to legalistic traditions of regulating teaching and learning –The shift to the „every child counts” paradigm –The shift to the development of higher level cognitive and non-cognitive skills –Teacher professionalism (teachers as curriculum- makers)

12 The multilevel nature of curriculum Supra-national level National level Subnational/local level School level Classroom/lesson level Individual pupil level

13 A national case: Hungary Developing curriculum through developmental interventions in Hungary Interventions „encountering” individual schools –What is good for one school is not necessarily good for another –Interventions not always lead to the desired change

14 ESF funded curriculum development interventions in Hungary Massive interventions since 2004 Two key areas –Inclusive education –Competence based education The focus on changing teaching methods Understanding impact

15 The impact of curriculum oriented development interventions on schools and teachers School level (N=562) Individual level (N=1222) A composite index of „deep and lasting impact” (Source: Fazekas, 2014)

16 Teachers starting to use methods not used before (% of those participating in curriculum oriented development programs, N=1313) Teaching methods% ICT use52 Projects based learning45,4 Cooperative methods42,1 Individual student monitoring23,8 Group work19,4 Classes shorter or longer than 45 minutes14,9 Cross-subject connections14,4 Extracurricular activities11,6

17 The impact of interventions in schools in function of „knowledge intensity” (Source: Fazekas, 2014)

18 The components of „knowledge intensity” Leadership supporting knowledge sharing Organisational climate supporting knowledge sharing Teacher learning in school Horizontal cooperation Organisational openness Use of data Involvement in development actions

19 PROBE Development interventions used as experiments (trying out what works)

20 SENSE (Understanding impact mechanisms) Interventions are producing different impacts in different institutional settings Unexpected patterns of institutional behaviour are emerging Local capacities and prior experiences determine impact Self-generating developments are unfolding in time

21 RESPOND (Development policy solutions) „Customising” interventions in function of local capacities Supporting institutional level learning capacity Upscaling through horizontal knowledge transfer

22 Click on pictures in orange frame! You have to click on pictures framed with orange colour while watching projection to activate hidden slides. example:


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