Presentation on theme: "Best Practices in Supervision of School Psychologists: Perspectives from the Field and the University Setting Ashley Arnold, MA, LSSP, NCSP Jennifer L."— Presentation transcript:
1Best Practices in Supervision of School Psychologists: Perspectives from the Field and the University SettingAshley Arnold, MA, LSSP, NCSPJennifer L. Schroeder, PhD, LP, LSSP, NCSP
2ObjectivesReview legal and ethical guidelines for providing supervisionReview effective techniques for supervision of practicum students, interns, and first-year LSSPs
3NASP Principles for Professional Ethics Standard IV.4.2“School psychologists who supervise practicum students and interns are responsible for all professional practices of the supervisee. They ensure that practicum students and interns are adequately supervised as outlined in the NASP Graduate Preparation Standards for School Psychologists. Interns and graduate students are identified as such, and their work is cosigned by the supervising school psychologist.”
4NASP Principles for Professional Ethics Standard IV.4.3“School psychologists who employ, supervise, or train professional provide appropriate working conditions, fair and timely evaluation, constructive supervision, and continuing professional development opportunities.”
5NASP Principles for Professional Ethics Standard IV.4.4“School psychologists who are faculty members at universities or who supervise graduate education field experiences apply these ethical principles in all work with school psychology graduate students. In addition, they promote the ethical practice of graduate students by providing specific and comprehensive instruction, feedback, and mentoring.”
6Supervisor Qualifications TSBEP Rule (5)Supervision may only be provided by a LSSP, who has a minimum of 3 years of experience providing psychological services in the public schools of this or another state. To meet supervisor qualifications, a licensee must be able to document the required experience by providing documentation from the authority that regulate the provision of psychological services in the public schools of that state…
7Supervisor Qualifications TSBEP Rule (5)(continued)……and proof that the licensee provided such services, documented by the public schools in the state in which the services were provided. Any licensed specialist in school psychology may count one full year as an intern or trainee as one of the 3 years of experience required to perform supervision.
8Supervision Rules TSBEP Rule 465.38(4)(A)(i-iv) (4) Supervision. (A) Direct, systematic, face-to-face supervision must be provided to:Interns as defined in §463.9 of this titleIndividuals who meet the training requirements of § of this title and who have passed the National School Psychology Examination at the Texas cutoff score or above and who have been notified in writing of this status by the Board. These individuals may practice under supervision in a Texas public school district for no more than one calendar year. They must be designated as trainees.
9Supervision Rules TSBEP Rule 465.38(4)(A)(i-iv) (continued) (4) Supervision. (A) Direct, systematic, face-to- face supervision must be provided to:(iii) LSSPs for a period of one academic year following licensure unless the individual also holds licensure as a psychologist in Texas. This supervision may be waived for individuals who legally provided full-time, unsupervised school psychological services in another state for a minimum of 3 academic years immediately preceding application for licensure in Texas as documented by the public schools where services were provided and who graduated from a training program approved by NASP or accredited in school psychology by APA or who hold NCSP certification.
10Supervision Rules TSBEP Rule 465.38(4)(A)(i-iv) (continued) (4) Supervision. (A) Direct, systematic, face-to-face supervision must be provided to: (iv) LSSPs when the individual is providing psychological services outside his or her area of training and supervised experience.
11Supervision Rules TSBEP Rule 465.38(4)(B) (B) Nothing in this rule applies to administrative supervision of psychology personnel within Texas public schools, performed by non-psychologists, in job functions involving, but not limited to, attendance, time management, completion of assignments, or adherence to school policies and procedures.
13Internship Rules TSBEP 463.9 (c) (c) Minimum of 1200 hours, of which 600 must be in a public schoolMust be provided through a formal course of supervised study from a regionally accredited institution of higher educationSupervised by an individual qualified in accordance with Board rule § of this title (relating to Psychological Services in the Schools).Internship which is not obtained in a public school must be supervised by a licensed psychologist.No experience with a supervisor who is related within the second degree of affinity or within the second degree by consanguinity to the person, or is under Board disciplinary order, may be considered for specialist in school psychology licensure.
14Internship Rules TSBEP 463.9 (c) Internships may not involve more than two sites (a school district is considered one site) and must be obtained in not less than one or more than two academic years.These individuals must be designated as interns.Direct, systematic supervision must involve a minimum of one face-to-face contact hour per week or two consecutive face-to-face contact hours once every two weeks with the intern.
15Internship Rules TSBEP 463.9 (c) The internship must include direct intern application of assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation, for children representing a range of ages, populations and needs.
16Who Can Practice in the Schools? TSBEP Rule 463.9 (g) (g) Provision of psychological services in the public schools by unlicensed individuals. An unlicensed individual may provide psychological services under supervision in the public schools pursuant to section § (a)(2) of the Act. Services may be provided if:(1) the individual is enrolled in an internship, practicum or other site based training in a school psychology program in a regionally accredited institution of higher education,OR
17Who Can Practice in the Schools? TSBEP Rule 463.9 (g) (g) Provision of psychological services in the public schools by unlicensed individuals. An unlicensed individual may provide psychological services under supervision in the public schools pursuant to section § (a)(2) of the Act. Services may be provided if:(2) the individual has completed an internship in a school psychology program in a regionally accredited institution of higher educationANDhas an application for licensure as an LSSP pending before the Boardthe Board has not notified the applicant that he or she does not meet the training requirements for this licensure,
18Who Can Practice in the Schools? TSBEP Rule 463.9 (g) (g) Provision of psychological services in the public schools by unlicensed individuals. An unlicensed individual may provide psychological services under supervision in the public schools pursuant to section § (a)(2) of the Act. Services may be provided if:OR(3) the individual has been issued a trainee status letter by the Board.
19Trainee Requirements TSBEP Rule 463.9 (f) Trainee Requirements. An applicant for the specialist in school psychology license who meets all requirements, prior to taking and passing the Jurisprudence examination, may, in accordance with Board rule §465.38(4) of this title (relating to Psychological Services in the Schools), practice under supervision as a trainee for not more than one calendar year.
20Qualifications and Obligations Site Supervisors Meet the NCSP credentialing requirementsComplete a minimum of 3 years’ supervised experience as a LSSPHelpful if employed full time in the districtKnowledge that supervision takes considerable timePossesses significant interpersonal skillsFamiliar with basic ethical and legal responsibilities and requirements for field work
21Qualifications and Obligations University Supervisors Ensure university and state requirements are metServes as liaison between training site and university programDevelop a relationship with the site supervisorMonitors appropriateness of siteEnsures the student is sufficiently competent to warrant licensure
22Qualifications and Obligations University Supervisors Formal opportunities for students to compare notes, ask questions, and formulate conclusions Makes site visits If a student encounters difficulty, serves as both mediator and problem solver
24Supervision Competencies (Dunsmuir & Leadbetter, 2010) Profession SpecificSpecialist/TherapeuticCoreCore – general supervisory skillsProfession – knowledge within the profession in generalSpecialist - supervision that may be requested to cover work in a specific area or using a particular approach
25Clinical Supervision Clinical Supervisors: Demonstrate and teach techniques and skillsExamine student work with superviseesHelp supervisees conceptualize casesAssist supervisees as they design intervention strategiesAssist supervisees as they disaggregate and interpret data
26Clinical Supervision Clinical Supervisors: Ensure that supervisees practice only within areas of professional competenceHelp supervisees learn how to work with different types of peopleDebrief supervisees after difficult or crisis situationsProvide second opinions
27Clinical Supervision Clinical Supervisors: Help supervisees address their blind spots resulting from personal experiencesProvide training and professional development opportunitiesEncourage induction into the profession via membership in professional organizations
28What to expect…the development of competence Supervisee Experience and Developmental Model (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 2003)Expertise requires 5-7 years of corrected experience to developLifelong, slow, continuous, erraticRelationships have most impact on development, not workshops
29Supervisee Experience and Developmental Model (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 2003) Six stages of professional growthLay helpers – sympathetic, advice giving, low emotional regulationBeginning student – rely heavily on supervisors, highly anxiousAdvanced students/interns – Excessively thorough, conflicts during supervision are common due to trying to assert themselvesNovice professionals – Explore their roles, become disillusionedExperienced professionals – lack of interest in professional developmentSenior professionals – increased sense of reality in terms of what they can accomplish
30Developmental Stages Model (Benner, 1984; Stoltenberg et al., 1998) Focuses on cognitive changes with the practitionerFive stagesNovices – Rule-governed, “know about” not “how to,” anxious, focus on skill acquisitionAdvanced beginners – Begin to take into account context, concerned with learning and mastering techniquesCompetence – Less preoccupied with own performance, engage in planning and goal settingProficiency – Reflect and integrateExperts – Intuitive, efficient
31Developmental Supervision ALL school psychologists are novices when they encounter situations with which they have no experienceNeed to match style with stage at which supervisee isNovice – needs close supervision, encourage, suggest, integrateAdvanced beginner – give more autonomy, introduce alternative views, provide comments on processes, use tapes, role plays, etc.Competent – let supervisees lead supervision, case-basedProficient and expert –supervision helps maintain and upgrade skill, supervising supervisors
32Administrative Supervision Administrative Supervisors:Provide leadershipRecruit and hireDelegate assignmentsConduct formal personnel evaluationsDesign corrective actionTake ultimate responsibility for services provided by supervisees
33Can a person be both clinical and administrative supervisor?
34Example of MOU between University and School District
35Rationales for Supervision Skill MaintenanceSkill Improvement and ExpansionProfessional DevelopmentReduced StressEnhanced Accountability
36Challenges in Supervising School Psychological Services Evaluation ProceduresSupervisory StructuresLack of Supervision TrainingOnly 11% of supervisors have supervision training (Ross & Goh, 1993)What kinds of things would training need to include (develop an idea of what you might need)?
37Training SupervisorsWorkshops, Informal Self-Study, and Peer Supervision NetworksNASP has an online forum for supervisorsUniversity-Run Training for Field SupervisorsFormal Coursework in Supervision or Administration
38Supervisor Characteristics Personal CharacteristicsIntegritySecure Attachment StylesSufficient Cognitive DevelopmentMentally healthySensitive and responsive to multicultural issuesMotivationLeadership SkillsDelegation Skills
39Theoretical Orientation and Supervision Models Psychodynamic – focuses on developing relationshipsPerson-centered – focuses on developing UPR, congruence, empathy and warmthBehavioral and cognitive behavioral – focuses on teaching appropriate skills and behaviorsConstructivism – construction of stories that influence future behaviorDiscrimination model – focuses on matching supervisee needs and supervisor skillsIntegrative approaches –combines multiple approaches
40Supervisor Role and Style (Hart & Nance, 2003) Directive TeacherSupportive TeacherConsultantCounselorHigh Support LowHighDirectionLowDirective Teacher – preferred by supervisees
41Learning Principles Provide experiential learning Provide collaborative and interactive learningFocus on important informationTie new information to known informationSpace and repeat learning trialsIncorporate corrective feedbackEncourage the monitoring of learningEnsure comprehensionFoster self-regulation and self-appraisal of learning
42Supervision GoalsReconcile your goal with the supervisee’s goals earlyWrite it down (may include in supervision contract)Treat similar to treatment goalsBegin each supervision session with a working agenda
43Supervision Format Individual Individual within a small group Group (4-8 supervisees)PeerCollaborative workMixed format
44Technology & Supervision Ensure confidentialityWatch nonverbal cues (e.g., ALL CAPS)TelephoneVideoconferencing
45Helpful TipsHave LSSP call parent prior to testing and review informed consent, including informing parent of training statusSign in blue inkMaintain copy of trainee letterField Supervisor Evaluation
46Helpful Tips Same day, same time STRUCTURE!!! Regular intervals of evaluationScheduled time weekly for supervisionSame day, same timeDocumentation of supervision timeApp: Hours TrackerStructured Forms
47Helpful Tips Develop a handbook for new supervisees List materials you would want to includeSet goals based on personal interests and developing competenciesProactive interns are persistent with their supervisorsAdapt with flexibilityThink critically
48Helpful Tips Handout 1.1 Field Supervisor Competencies Handout 2.1 Supervisory Strategies to Meet Supervisees’ Psychological NeedsHandout 2.2 Strategies to Reduce Supervisee AnxietyHandout 14.8 School Psychology Position Interview QuestionsHandout Intern Evaluation of InternshipHandout Supervisor Evaluation
49FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Who’s responsibility is it to ensure the practicum student/intern/trainee can practice? Licensees ensure that their supervisees have legal authority to provide psychological services in adherence to Board rules. TSBEP Rule 465.2(b)
50FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Do I have to document the supervision in writing?Yes! Licensees shall document their supervision activities in writing.TSBEP Rule 465.2(e)
52ReferencesSmith Harvey, V. & Struzziero, J. A. (2008). Professional Development and Supervision of School Psychologists (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: National Association of School Psychologists and Corwin Press.Douglas, K. & Valsamis (2013). Making the Most of Supervision. Communique, 41(8).