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Teach a Book: Classroom Management for Middle and High School Teachers

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1 Teach a Book: Classroom Management for Middle and High School Teachers
Edmund T. Emmer Carolyn M. Evertson

2 Chapter 1: Organizing Your Classroom and Materials
Room arrangement: Consistent with instructional goals and activities Teacher-led vs small groups Mix of both? High-traffic areas free of congestion Students easily seen by teacher Frequently used materials/supplies easily accessible Students easily see board

3 Chapter 1: Organizing Your Classroom and Materials
Suggestions for arranging your classroom: Bulletin boards/walls Daily assignments on decorative display (colored paper or borders) 9th grade and below post rules of classroom Reward “class of the month” Floor space - starting point: where is whole-class instruction? Student desks - avoid students w/backs to instructional area Teacher’s desk and other equipment Storage space and supplies

4 Chapter 1: Organizing Your Classroom and Materials
If you have to float: Familiarize yourself with the room Try to arrange a projector for daily use Prepare transparencies for lessons/hw assignments, and notices A regular space on the board for assignments Storage space for materials that cannot be carried with you everyday Try to get a cart Assign early arriving students the task of preparing the room Erase boards, set up projector, arrange chairs

5 Chapter 2: Choosing Rules and Procedures
Why rules and procedures are needed Rules identify general expectations or standards - best when positively stated (You may talk when given permission) Procedures communicate expectations for behavior - apply to a specific activity Planning classroom rules and procedures (consequences?) Identify school rules and procedures Around 5 sufficient to cover most behavior (student participation?) Bring all needed materials to class Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings Respect and be polite to all people Respect other people’s property Obey all school rules

6 Choosing Rules and Procedures
Chapter 2: Choosing Rules and Procedures General Procedures Beginning of period Attendance: use seating chart, keep track of missing work Absences: write name and date on handouts and keep in absentee folder; daily assignments on calendar; student volunteers to assist returning students Tardy students: be consistent; sign in sheet Expected behavior: Warm up questions at beginning of period, copy outline of class activities Leaving the room: emergencies only; keeping a record; reduced credit for work not brought to class Use of materials and equipment: teachers and student materials End of period: clean up of materials and reminders of upcoming work

7 Choosing Rules and Procedures
Chapter 2: Choosing Rules and Procedures Procedures during seatwork and instruction Student attention during presentations: respect and note-taking Participation: raise hands, student call? Seatwork Talk among students (no student talk vs quiet talk) Raised hands for help Out-of-seat procedures: sharpen pencil, get paper; one-at-a-time When work is completed (enrichment activities folder, work on hw)

8 Choosing Rules and Procedures
Chapter 2: Choosing Rules and Procedures Procedures for group work Distribution of material stations/helpers Assigning students to groups: well-balanced, separate clashing personalities, save time, efficient Outline goals and participation roles (recorder, reader, etc.) Cooperative learning Miscellaneous Signals: obtain student attention, transitions (turn off lights, bell) Announcements, special equipment, fire drills, and split lunch periods (what to do with work and personal belongings)

9 Chapter 3: Managing Student Work
Your grading system and record keeping Achievement, effort, hw, improvement, participation, and percentages Accurate assessment: frequent evaluation Record all student info in grade book rather than separate lists Feedback and monitoring procedures Students check own work (different ink and model how to check) Students keep own record of grades Long-term/group projects: divide into smaller goals and deadlines Peer review (must teach) Guided beginning for group seatwork then work the room Long-range monitoring - keep track of missing assignments

10 Chapter 3: Managing Student Work
Communicating assignments and work requirements Instructions for assignments Oral explanation of requirements/rubric as well as visual aid on board Routine of copying down assignment Standards for form, neatness, and due dates Procedures for absent students Post weekly assignments or keep absentee folder Length for make-up Place for late work turn in and graded pick up Missed group work - assist groups in inclusion of absent members

11 Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start
Perspectives on the beginning of the year Resolve student uncertainties: expectations, procedures, and rules - opportunity for students to learn appropriate behavior Plan uncomplicated lessons to ensure student success Keep whole-class focus (group work should maintain this); prepare extra credit or enrichment assignments; later introduce complex activities Be available, visible, and in charge: work the room; praise, prompt, leave Teacher authority: rights to set standards for behavior and performance Traditional, bureaucratic, expert/professional, charismatic Most teachers derive authority from several sources Authoritarian (control through threats and punishment) vs authoritative (provide basis for actions/discipline, give students independence for maturity, and administer consequences fairly and proportionately)

12 Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start
Planning for a good beginning Checking books out to students (wait until lockers have been assigned): record book numbers, name stamp, cover Paperwork (hall pass, emergency forms, etc): all forms on hand and separated in folders Rosters organized by period, noting accommodations for seating/medication, 3x5: name, book #, attendance, grades until class stabilized - useful for calling on students Seating assignments: learn names/attendance faster, class management First-week bell schedule, tardiness leniency for first few days, administrative tasks, rules Course requirements: tests, quizzes, hw contributions - parents sign? Beginning routine and alternative activities (wkst, puzzles, logic problems)

13 Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start
The first day of class Stand near door (sign w/name outside), make eye contact and smile, correct any students that enter with unacceptable behavior, and make sure students are in the correct room Administrative tasks (forms on hand), check attendance by raised hands (not call-outs), teacher/student/course introductions Discussion of class rules and rationale/penalties, emphasizing benefits to all, and presentation of course requirements Interesting initial content activity: should require little or no assistance, which allows time for teaching procedures Explain what students are expected to do, list steps on board if complex, demonstrate when possible, give corrective feedback Avoid pre-tests, small groups, projects, and individualized instruction Establish end-of-period routine

14 Getting Off to a Good Start
Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start The second day of classes If 1st day was short, review class procedures and follow 1st day plan Identify new students and get them seated, re-state beginning-of- class routine, review major rules and procedures Present content activity Close period with procedure introduced on day 1 After the second day Continue using procedures, adding new ones as needed Monitor student behavior and give students feedback when their behavior does not meet expectations Should start giving regular assignments for in-class and at home and check work promptly using grading procedures

15 Chapter 5: Planning and Conducting Instruction
Planning classroom activities: types Openers to transition into the classroom (Do Now’s) and Closers Checking work: must teach appropriate procedures (different ink color) Recitation: oral check of student understanding, distribute questions to all members of class, watch for too slow or too rapid pacing Content development: intro/extension of material, concepts, or skills; teacher questions/collect work for understanding Discussion: encourage evaluation, awareness of other points of view, sharing of opinions; requires planning prompting questions and management of activity Seatwork on previously presented material, start as class then independent work Test administration (plan work for early finishers) Student presentations and demos - give guidelines in advance, audience behavior Small-group work: lab work, promote greater comprehension, cooperative learning, reciprocal teaching Tests and presentations/demonstrations

16 Planning and Conducting Instruction
Chapter 5: Planning and Conducting Instruction Organizing activities - depends on number of different topics covered in class; focus on see- say-do Kounin: managing group instruction - activity flow Preventing misbehavior withitness and overlapping Managing lesson movement momentum (pacing) and smoothness (continuity; ex. dangle, thrust) Maintaining group focus group alerting (tell students they might be called on next) encouraging accountability (performance observed and evaluated) higher participation formats: write answers, read along during instruction

17 Planning and Conducting Instruction
Chapter 5: Planning and Conducting Instruction Transition management (see problems/solutions) Instructional management Planning anticipate problems (new terms and examples, demos) do homework to find difficulties - build hints in lesson infuse enthusiasm into lesson Presenting new content clearly: Learning objectives at beginning and provide an outline for a complex lesson or video Checking for understanding: formative and summative assessments ask review questions discuss and solve problems as a group; recitation indicators (multiple choice question, “hands” to indicate response

18 Chapter 6: Managing Cooperative Learning Groups
Research on cooperative learning Equal or greater learning than individualistic or competitive teaching methods with effective cooperative groups due to increased engagement with content; NEED feedback/instruction on how to collaborate Strategies and routines that support cooperative learning Room arrangement - line up desks to marks on floor for quick transitions Talk and movement procedures: 6-inch voices, materials manager, state timed movement expectation w/verbal reminders Group attention signals: MS raised hands, HS turn on projector and ask for eyes at the front; avoid interruptions/present info ahead of time Promoting interdependence within groups: individual tasks (vary skills, research different topic for report), group grades Individual accountability - id contributions, peer evaluation, individual notebooks graded at various times, individual responsibility to explain

19 Managing Cooperative Learning Groups
Chapter 6: Managing Cooperative Learning Groups Monitoring student work and behavior Work the room w/clipboard to write notes about all students about satisfactory group functioning - note degree of explanation/demonstration and use for feedback group and individual performance -self-monitor to identify difficulties Interventions Non/verbal redirect, time out/work alone, conference w/individual students, conference w/entire group Effective group work skills: Social skills: teach active listening/sharing/support before group work Explaining skills: Rotate summarizer role, explain something to partner and explain back, work as group to answer a question and present to class Leadership skills: assign presenter/discussion leader roles to build skills

20 Managing Cooperative Learning Groups
Chapter 6: Managing Cooperative Learning Groups Beginning the use of cooperative learning groups Room arrangement, procedures, and routines Forming groups: star with pairs, working up to larger groups that have a range of achievement levels, match extremes w/middle to motivate lower achiever Initial group tasks to build skills: turn to your partner and explain/compare answers, drill partner, reading buddy, checking, reviewers Teaching group skills: listening, explaining, asking for help, encouraging, and sharing - introduce one/week and give feedback; assign and rotate roles (keep on index cards w/behaviors) so everyone gains experience Using group and individual rewards to practice/improve skills - tickets for good behavior for toy raffle/points for fun activities

21 Chapter 7: Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior
Monitoring student behavior Student involvement in learning activities: “active eyes,” work the room and don’t spend more than 1-2 min/student, start whole-group activity Student compliance with classroom rules and procedures: clear expectations that have been communicated to the class Consistency Inconsistency from unreasonable/inappropriate rules, no detection of inappropriate behavior, not willing to enforce every time What to do if you are inconsistent Re-teach procedure (discuss problem) and enforce it Modify and reintroduce it Or, abandon it and substitute another in its place

22 Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior
Chapter 7: Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior Prompt management of inappropriate behavior Eye contact/move closer and prompt appropriate behavior Reminder of procedure by stating correct one or note students who are doing what is expected Redirect attention to task and monitor shortly thereafter Ask/tell student to stop inappropriate behavior Make it private: call to desk, whisper, nonverbal cues Briefly talk to student/assess penalties Time out at desk or another room

23 Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior
Chapter 7: Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior Building a positive climate Communicate positive expectations to students: convey confidence in students’ ability to do well, can do attitude, maintain high expectations Appropriate teacher praise (public vs private): both informative feedback and genuine teacher approval that focuses on accomplishment, not effort Improving class climate through incentives or rewards Grades (tie as many facets of work as possible) and recognition (display work, certificate, verbal, stickers, improvement/conduct) Activities (PAT) and material incentives (food, games, books): relate to behaviors most important to you (attendance, hw), everyone can achieve it Caution of effect of rewards: enhance or hurt? - imperfect conditions

24 Chapter 8: Communication Skills for Teaching
Constructive assertiveness Clear statement of problem or concern and describing effects - reduces student defensiveness, avoids labeling students/behavior, use statements Unambiguous body language: eye contact, posture, facial expression matches tone of statements Obtaining appropriate behavior and resolving the problem: student needs to accept responsibility for behavior, dramatic emphasis for evasive students Empathic responding Keeps lines of communication open between you and the student and aids problem solving process Two components: listening skills and processing skills

25 Communication Skills for Teaching
Chapter 8: Communication Skills for Teaching Problem solving Identify the problem: state purpose of meeting, get students point of view/describe problem, ask students reaction; evaluate: help/hurt? Identify and select the solution: student suggestion, multiple teacher alternatives; positive focus with plan for improvement Obtain a commitment: student acceptance for period of time followed by evaluation (sometimes in a contract) with consequences if not followed Talking with parents Constructive assertiveness, empathetic responding, problem solving Express appreciation for parents’ efforts to meet,work w/them as a team Focus on choices student is making and how to encourage better decisions Document concerns: student work and notes of behaviors

26 Chapter 9: Managing Problem Behaviors
What is problem behavior? Nonproblem: brief inattention, transition talk Minor problem: students calling out, leaving seats, talk during group work Major problem, but limited in scope/effects: chronically off-task, failure to pass in hw assignments, vandalism, cheating Escalating or spreading problem: unabated social talking, back talk Goals for managing problem behavior Judge short-term (bad behaviors cease) and long-term effects (prevention) of any management strategy chosen Optimal: Maintain/restore order w/out adversely affecting learning environment; should prevent repetition of problem

27 Chapter 9: Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies Minor interventions Nonverbal cues: finger to lips, head shake, hand signal, light touch to arm Get activity moving: quick transitions, all materials ready Proximity: zones of proximity, combine w/nonverbal cues Group focus: group alerting, accountability, higher participation format Redirect behavior: state what should be done, “everybody should be writing answers to the practice problems” Provide needed instruction: check student work, whole-class instruction Brief desist: direct eye contact and assertiveness, combine w/redirection Give student a choice: behave appropriately or continue behavior w/consequence, “choose to clean up now or say after class until area is clean” I-message: “it’s distracting to me and the class when you get out of your seat,” learn awareness of effects of behavior on others

28 Chapter 9: Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies Moderate interventions Withhold privilege and earn back w/appropriate behavior (sit near friends, work together on project) Isolate/remove problem students: desk at back of room, time out, switch if rewarding to student, time out or walk to principal’s office, labels student as excludable Fine or penalty: extra work, but defined as punishment - quick to administer, but content negatively affected, non-content (look up and copy 10 definitions) Detention best for behaviors that involve time (tardiness, time-wasting behavior) or repeated rule violations; adv: disliked, administered away from classroom; disadv: takes teacher time, student skipping, additional records Referral to office for fighting, vandalism, rudeness and disrespect; adv: effective limit, short-circuit escalating situation; disadv: depends on others for effectiveness, potential for discrimination; use sparingly

29 Chapter 9: Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies More extensive interventions Design individual contract with student - problem solving Conference w/parent: describe situation and appreciate support that parent gives to help understand and resolve problem, have grade book handy - require time and energy Check (name on board)/demerit (record that student signs to accept responsibility) system; adv: set/maintain limits, consequences are clear; disadv: catch bad behaviors, hard to detect behaviors Problem solving “Think time” strategy - remove student to another teacher’s classroom, debriefing form: what was behavior? what behavior do you need to display upon return? Reality therapy: establish caring relationship, focus on behavior, accept responsibility, evaluate behavior, make plan, commitment to follow plan, following up Peer mediation: students trained to listen/clarify issues, help negotiate, write solution

30 Managing Problem Behaviors
Chapter 9: Managing Problem Behaviors Special problems Chronic avoidance of work: good records a must Ability: break assignment into parts/modify assignment Parent phone call, reach out to coaches, no grade leniency Fighting: injury if intervene? disperse crowd, get help Other aggressive behavior: all behavior, even if playful, is unacceptable; respect others; one warning; separate students; conference w/student Bullying: bullying prevention programs, monitor student behavior, talk with class about behavior and effects, bully and victim problem solving, involve school counselor, incorporate social skills training in class Disrespect/hostility towards teacher: don’t go brainstem Best to defuse: keep it private and individual conference with student Depersonalize: “This is taking time away from class. I will discuss it with you in a few minutes when I have time.”

31 Chapter 10: Managing Special Groups
Teaching heterogeneous classes Assessing entering achievement: previous tests, pre-tests, monitor initial classwork (class notes, summary from book) Modifying whole group instruction: participation (pacing), procedures for managing student work, thoughtful seating arrangement, assignments: EC and enrichment, peer tutoring (expectations and management skills) Cooperative work groups Small (homogeneous) group instruction: location of group/seating, materials/storage/accessibility, student movement/transitions, out-of- group procedures and expectations Mastery learning: re-take tests until proficient by providing increased feedback Labor intensive: managerial skills, alt. forms of tests, extra grading, scheduling, enrichment activities, recordkeeping Develop/introduce incrementally, due dates, specified days for test re-takes

32 Chapter 10: Managing Special Groups
Teaching remedial classes Learner characteristics: high absence/tardies, arbitrary grades, frequent failure, poor study skills, low attention span Establishing your management system: continually reinforce procedures and routines, question class, practice, feedback Monitoring behavior and prompt responses Managing student work of daily/weekly grades for frequent feedback, grade for effort/performance, incorporate participation (involvement, learning, attendance) Planning and presenting instruction Short activity segments w/frequent assessment of understanding (see, say, do) Extra attention to presenting directions and instruction clearly Build teaching of study skills in lesson (note taking, identifying main ideas)

33 Chapter 10: Managing Special Groups
Students with special needs Content mastery classroom: provide extra help, extra time for tests, staffed w/special education teachers who can provide suggestions for adapting teaching/management Inclusion - special education students in general education classrooms: IEPs, regular planned meetings for progress and support, assignment modifications Emotional/behavioral problems communication with all, overlook minor inappropriate behavior, reinforce acceptable behavior, identify/reduce/prevent stressors, temporary lowered expectation on bad days, offer structured choices, allow leaving classroom remember you are convenient target, but not cause of anger Serious social deficits (ASD) odd social skills with poor communication skills, extreme anxiety to change/unmet expectations, acute sensitivity to sounds, poor motor skills, stereotyped movement use visual prompts, brief instructions (write down), social stories, strengths and interests in teaching to provide ways to develop talents, social feedback

34 Chapter 10: Managing Special Groups
Students with special needs ADHD: distractible, impulsive, disorganized predictability and structure, ask others what works best for them, make sure you have their attention when giving clear/brief instructions, observe as they work, remind/reinforce effort and accuracy over speed, finger card/marker for reading Deaf/hard-of-hearing: auditory devices, center of room seat, projector not chalkboard, repeat/rephrase info, restate responses, close monitoring, note takers Bind/visually-impaired: board work - read aloud, tape recorders, hands-on work, change in activity to prevent tiring, seat w/back to window, move as needed Extreme poverty: increased communication and relationship building, presentation of non-weak image/insolence, extra materials/supplies, bracket anxieties, peer buddy, provide underlying assumptions for behavior, + self-talk, help another student Limited English proficiency: understanding of English, learn key words in native lanuage, body language/gestures, visual aids, long receptive period before confident in classroom, consult counselor if language barrier prevents benefit from instruction

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