Presentation on theme: "DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: BASIC PROBLEMS, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PREVENTION AND POLICY MEASURES BILATERAL RESEARCH PROJECT BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS AND THE."— Presentation transcript:
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: BASIC PROBLEMS, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PREVENTION AND POLICY MEASURES BILATERAL RESEARCH PROJECT BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS AND THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA Spyros Spyrou, Associate Professor of Anthropology/ Sociology, European University Cyprus Loucas Antoniou, PhD Candidate & Research Associate, Center for the Study of Childhood and Adolescence
FUNDING FOR THE STUDIES The studies are funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the Public Agency for Research Activity of the Republic of Slovenia.
THE STUDY IN CYPRUS: Covered women ages 18-60 from urban and rural areas who are married (87%), engaged (9.5%), or in a relationship (3.5). 30% of women were housewives while the remaining were employed outside the home. Random, stratified sample covering both urban and rural areas.
THE QUESTIONNAIRE: Two parts: 1.The first part was concerned the attitudes and perceptions of the participants about domestic violence; administered by a female interviewer. 2.The second part was concerned with the experiences of the participants with domestic violence; self-administered.
THE PROBLEM OF UNDER-REPORTING: All interviews took place in respondents’ homes. The sensitivity of the issue and the (sometimes) presence of other persons in the house during the interviews, resulted in a low completion rate of the second part of the questionnaire which focused on the respondents’ experiences with domestic violence. To encourage respondents to fill the second part and to ensure anonymity and confidentiality, a poll was provided so that respondents could drop in their questionnaires in it. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that the low incidence of violence recorded is not reflective of reality; as many studies show this is a typical problem and rates of violence tend to be significantly higher than what surveys report.
RESPONDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
PHYSICAL VIOLENCE For some types of physical violence, most respondents are strong and clear that they constitute physical violence (e.g., slap, hair pulling, etc) but for other types of violence their evaluations are not as strong and definite (e.g., push, pinching/squeezing, etc).
PSYCHOLOGICAL/EMOTIONAL VIOLENCE For some types of psychological/emotional violence, most respondents are strong and clear that they constitute psychological/emotional violence (e.g., sexual intercourse without consent, etc) but for other types of violence their evaluations are not as strong and definite (e.g., threat of injury, threatening glances, forbiding contact with friends and relatives, etc).
PERCEPTION OF THE FREQUENCY OF VIOLENCE EXERCISED FROM: Respondents see men as more likely to exercise violence “often” against women or children than they see women doing that. THE MAN TOWARDS THE WOMAN THE WOMAN TOWARDS THE MAN THE FATHER TOWARDS THE CHILD THE MOTHER TOWARDS THE CHILD Percentage Base:100 % Often78.3 19.747.934.4 Rarely14.7 66.841.147.9 Never0.2 5.00.76.5 Don’t know/No answer6.7 8.410.211.2
PERCEPTION OF THE FREQUENCY OF VIOLENCE EXERCISED BY INDIVIDUALS WITH HIGH EDUCATION VERSUS LOW EDUCATION Respondents see individuals with low education as more likely to exercise violence “often” against others. WITH HIGH EDUCATION WITH LOW EDUCATION Percentage Βase:100 % Often25.252.4 Rarely48.425.2 Never2.50 Don’t know/No answer23.922.4
PERCEPTION OF THE FREQUENCY OF VIOLENCE EXERCISED BY INDIVIDUALS WITH HIGH FINANCIAL ABILITY VERSUS LOW FINANCIAL ABILITY Respondents see individuals with low financial ability as more likely to exercise violence “often” against others. HIGH FINANCIAL ABILITY LOW FINANCIAL ABILITY Percentage Βase:100 % Often29.250.4 Rarely43.926.4 Never2.70 Don’t know/No answer24.223.2
WHETHER VIOLENCE IS A PERSONAL OR SOCIAL PROBLEM Total FrequencyPercentage Βase:(401)100 % Personal problem9523.7 Social problem29974.6 Don’t know71.7
WHETHER THERE ARE OCCASIONS WHEN A HUSBAND IS JUSTIFIED IN EXERCISING VIOLENCE AGAINST HIS WIFE Total FrequencyPercentage Βase:(401)100% Yes5012.5 No33583.5 Don’t know/ no answer164.0
WHETHER THE RESPONDENT AGREES WITH THE OPINION THAT A WOMAN SHOULD REPORT VIOLENT INCIDENTS THAT SHE EXPERIENCED TO THIRD PARTIES Total FrequencyPercentage Βase:(401)100% Agree38596.0 Disagree102.5 Don’t know/No answer61.5
WHETHER THE RESPONDENT WOULD HAVE REPORTED VIOLENT INCIDENTS THAT SHE EXPERIENCED TO THIRD PARTIES Total FrequencyPercentage Βase:(401)100% Yes35388.0 No205.0 Don’t know/no answer28286.9
A MAN SHOULD NEVER HIT HIS WIFE A MAN WHO HITS HIS WIFE BECAUSE OF JEALOUSLY TRULY LOVES HER WHEN A MAN HITS HIS WIFE HE IS A REAL MAN FOR THE SAKE OF FAMILY UNITY, A WOMAN SHOULD TOLERATE ONE OR TWO SLAPS Percentage Base: 100 % Entirely disagree1.585.094.875.6 Somewhat disagree09.02.79.2 Neither agree nor disagree 2.52.707.0 Somewhat agree11.50.2 3.5 Entirely agree84.52.2 4.2 Don’t know/No answer00.700.5 WHETHER THE RESPONDENT AGREES WITH THE STATEMENT WITCH SAYS THAT:
12.7% state that their mother experienced violence in the past by her husband. 11.7% state that they have experienced violence in the past by their father or mother. Of those, 80.9% state that they experienced violence in the family when they were children under the age of 12 while 17% state that they experienced violence when they were adolescents (i.e., above the age of 12). EXPERIENCES WITH DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Most women recognize the existence of domestic violence in Cyprus Not all forms of physical and psychological violence are recognized by women as such or at least to the same extent Women feel that men, individuals with low education, and individuals with low financial ability are more likely to exercise domestic violence “often” against others CONCLUSIONS
About one in four women see domestic violence as a personal rather than as a social problem. One in eight women feel that there are occasions when a husband is justified in exercising violence against his wife. 5% of women state that if they experienced incidents of domestic violence they would not report them to third parties (socialization not to tell: Lutenbacher et al. 2004). CONCLUSIONS (cont.)
Small but nevertheless significant percentages of women are willing to excuse violence from a man to a woman on certain occasions (e.g., when there is jealousy involved, in order to preserve family unity, etc). Only 3% of women report being victims of domestic violence in the present; however, this is clearly a case of under-reporting as the international literature shows. The perpetrator in the majority of cases is the husband (58.4%) though one in three women state “Don’t know/No Answer” which suggests once again they are unwilling to state who the perpetrator is. CONCLUSIONS (cont.)
There is clearly more need to educate people (and women in particular): as to what constitutes physical and psychological/emotional violence in the home. as to why domestic violence is a social rather than a personal problem. This can be done through formal education (i.e., schools), public presentations, the mass media and organized campaigns. that domestic violence is, under no circumstances, acceptable or justified. about their options when confronted with domestic violence. RECOMMENDATIONS