4 Contents 1Tactical Data Links –terminology –technology –applications 2Interoperability –data links in real situations 3Lessons to be learnt –what can the civil world learn –what can the military world learn
6 Terminology In the Military world the term ‘Data Link’ usually covers the technology, applications and messages for which a system has been designed The term ‘Tactical Data Link’ (TDL) means data links used to support a military mission - the ‘sharp end’ Therefore civil ATM data links are ‘tactical data links’ Both an alphabet soup - but military wins ! Section 1 Speaking the same language
7 Civil ATM ‘tactical’ data links VDL Mode 2/3/4 AMSS HF ACARS Mode S Gatelink UAT Section 1 ATN can ‘glue’ together many of these subnetworks into a seamless communications system
8 Military tactical data links Link 22 Link 16 Link 14 Link 11 Link 4 Link 1 JTIDS/MIDS IJMS Common Data Link Section 1 Satellite Tactical Data Link Tactical Common Data Link High Integrity Data Link Missile Battery Data Link Ground Based Data Link Point to Point Data Link Situational Awareness Data Link Army Tactical Data Link ………………….
9 Why so many ? Good question! Each has been developed for a specific purpose and developed by a separate part of the military Some are old but still in use Interworking is difficult Needs sophisticated gateways - could the ATN concept have been used ? Section 1
10 Technology Link 11 - air/ground and ground/ground - low speed –HF/UHF Link 22 - improved Link11 – HF/UHF Link 16 - air/ground and ground/ground - high speed TDMA –UHF spread spectrum –data rates from 28 kb/s to 128 kb/s Section 1 So what are the features of some of these data links ?
11 Link 16 features Resistant to jamming Improved security Improved throughput Digitized, jam resistant, secure voice Precise participant location and identification (PPLI) Thinks ! Wouldn’t these features be good in civil ATM data links Section 1
12 Applications Surveillance Mission Management Secure Voice Navigation Positive identification Weapons co-ordination Section 1 What are the military tactical data links used for ?
14 How do you achieve interoperability ? In civil aviation ICAO standards and recommended practices are used to achieve world-wide interoperability Within NATO countries STANAGS (STANdardisation AGreement) are used to achieve interoperability In implementing systems based on ICAO SARPS or on STANAGS there is a danger of misinterpretation Interoperability can also mean different systems working with each other Section 2 Standards
15 Military Data Link Problems Many users reported significant problems using Link 16 in ‘real life’ situations NATO did not possess a system capable of monitoring and controlling Link 16 network operations –Incorrect message implementation –Deficient operating procedures Section 2 So what happens when they are used ?
16 Interoperability Testing An operationally proven multi-link monitoring, management and message analysis tool for Link-16, IJMS and Link-11A Provides specification compliance testing against the NATO STANAG in force and platform implementation plans Section 2 Multi-link Interoperability Data Analysis System - MIDAS
17 Interoperability Testing Dynamic Network Management allowed maximum operational effectiveness through: –Optimal interface integrity, performance & information exchange –Monitoring the data link interfaces continuously –Real-time control of data link operations –Continuous data recording nDetailed near-real-time and off-line analysis Provides specification compliance testing against the NATO STANAG in force and platform implementation plans NATO did not possess a system capable of monitoring and controlling Link 16 network operations. –Incorrect message implementation –Deficient operating procedures Section 2 MIDAS - operational benefits
19 Learning from each other Fundamentally the civil world has the same problems as the military - surveillance and command and control Military data link technology is sophisticated and robust - why reinvent the wheel ? Deployment of data links in a ‘real world’ environment will undercover unexpected effects and problems - may need an independent test platform in the ‘theatre of operations’. Do we need a civil data link tester ? Section 3 What can the civil world learn ?
20 Learning from each other Do they really need all those data links ? Would better co- ordination reduce the set ? Could an ATN-like solution be used to improve interoperability and reduce the needs for gateways ? –security is an issue but the ATN can be made more secure There are likely to be some civil applications that will be of benefit to the military now - especially for logistics Section 3 What can the military world learn ?
21 Learning from each other There is a growing need for Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA) Eurocontrol ATM 2000+ and EC Single Sky –civil and military aircraft using more shared airspace If data could be shared better then this could be easier –problems with fitting new equipment in fighter aircraft therefore need to try to use what is there e.g. use of Link 16 PPLI messages for surveillance Section 3 Civil/military co-ordination
22 Military data links have emerged to meet a range of specific requirements. Civil data links ATM applications are just starting to emerge and it is not known whether the technology can meet the requirements. Both worlds can learn from each other - there may even be an increased role for the ATN