Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16 Population and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 16 Population and Urbanization Sociology4/8/2017CHAPTER 16 Population and UrbanizationSection 1: Population ChangeSection 2: Urban LifeChapter 16
2Objectives: Section 1: Population Change Identify factors that affect the size and structure of populations and explain how sociologists measure these factors.Summarize how sociologists explain population change and describe the programs that have been instituted to control population growth.
3Size and Structure of Populations Section 1: Population ChangeSize and Structure of PopulationsBirthrate – annual number of live birth per 1,000 members of a populationDeath rate – number of deaths within a societyMigration rate – annual difference between in-migration and out-migrationGrowth rate – rate at which a country’s population is increasingPopulation Composition – age and sex
4Explaining Population Change and Controlling Population Growth Section 1: Population ChangeExplaining Population Change and Controlling Population GrowthMalthusian Theory – geometric population growth but arithmetic food production, population growth could outpace food productionDemographic Transition Theory – lower birthrate and lower death rate as a result of a higher stage of technological developmentControlling Population Growth – family planning and economic improvements
5Objectives: Section 2: Urban Life Explain how cities evolved and why urbanization is such a recent event.Identify the models that have been proposed to explain the structure of cities and summarize the theories that have been put forth to explain city life.
6Evolution of the City and Urbanization Section 2: Urban LifeEvolution of the City and UrbanizationCities arose with the Agricultural Revolution and preindustrial cities were smallDifferent occupations were located in distinct sectors and people were segregated into classes or castesUnsanitary conditions led to high death ratesDuring the Industrial Revolution people came to the cities in search of jobs
7Evolution of the City and Urbanization Section 2: Urban LifeEvolution of the City and Urbanization(continued)Today 75 percent of Americans live in urban areas and almost every region of the country is heavily urbanizedUrbanization in more-developed nations has generally followed an ordered progression and has resulted in increased rates of literacy, greater economic opportunities, and improved health care
8Models of Cities Section 2: Urban Life Concentric Zone Model – city spreads outward from center, resulting in a series of circles, or zonesSector Model- city grows in wedge-shaped sectors outward from center to edges of the cityMultiple-Nuclei Model- city develops around several centers of activity, or “nuclei,” devoted to specialized land use
9Theories of City Life Section 2: Urban Life Anomie Theory – city is anonymous and unfriendly and carries negative consequences for residentsCompositional Theory – greater diversity of city residents leads to greater variety of lifestylesSubcultural Theory – people can find others with similar interests in diverse cities, some people form close ties