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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 16 Population and Urbanization Section 1: Population Change Section 2:

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 16 Population and Urbanization Section 1: Population Change Section 2:"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 16 Population and Urbanization Section 1: Population Change Section 2: Urban Life

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Identify factors that affect the size and structure of populations and explain how sociologists measure these factors.  Summarize how sociologists explain population change and describe the programs that have been instituted to control population growth. Section 1: Population Change

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Size and Structure of Populations  Birthrate – annual number of live birth per 1,000 members of a population  Death rate – number of deaths within a society  Migration rate – annual difference between in- migration and out-migration  Growth rate – rate at which a country’s population is increasing  Population Composition – age and sex Section 1: Population Change

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Explaining Population Change and Controlling Population Growth  Malthusian Theory – geometric population growth but arithmetic food production, population growth could outpace food production  Demographic Transition Theory – lower birthrate and lower death rate as a result of a higher stage of technological development  Controlling Population Growth – family planning and economic improvements Section 1: Population Change

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Objectives:  Explain how cities evolved and why urbanization is such a recent event.  Identify the models that have been proposed to explain the structure of cities and summarize the theories that have been put forth to explain city life. Section 2: Urban Life

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Evolution of the City and Urbanization  Cities arose with the Agricultural Revolution and preindustrial cities were small  Different occupations were located in distinct sectors and people were segregated into classes or castes  Unsanitary conditions led to high death rates  During the Industrial Revolution people came to the cities in search of jobs Section 2: Urban Life

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Evolution of the City and Urbanization  Today 75 percent of Americans live in urban areas and almost every region of the country is heavily urbanized  Urbanization in more-developed nations has generally followed an ordered progression and has resulted in increased rates of literacy, greater economic opportunities, and improved health care Section 2: Urban Life (continued)

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Models of Cities  Concentric Zone Model – city spreads outward from center, resulting in a series of circles, or zones  Sector Model- city grows in wedge-shaped sectors outward from center to edges of the city  Multiple-Nuclei Model- city develops around several centers of activity, or “nuclei,” devoted to specialized land use Section 2: Urban Life

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Theories of City Life  Anomie Theory – city is anonymous and unfriendly and carries negative consequences for residents  Compositional Theory – greater diversity of city residents leads to greater variety of lifestyles  Subcultural Theory – people can find others with similar interests in diverse cities, some people form close ties Section 2: Urban Life


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