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Do Entry Regulations Deter Entrepreneurship and Job Creation? Evidence from Recent Reforms in Portugal Lee Branstetter, Francisco Lima, Lowell J. Taylor.

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Presentation on theme: "Do Entry Regulations Deter Entrepreneurship and Job Creation? Evidence from Recent Reforms in Portugal Lee Branstetter, Francisco Lima, Lowell J. Taylor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Entry Regulations Deter Entrepreneurship and Job Creation? Evidence from Recent Reforms in Portugal Lee Branstetter, Francisco Lima, Lowell J. Taylor and Ana Venâncio 1Mar 30, 2011World Bank Conference - New Ideas in Business Growth

2 Do burdensome entry requirements hamper the creation of new firms? 2 Two streams of empirical work suggest that entry barriers are associated with reduced job creation and firm formation  Time-, region and/or industry-specific variation within a country  Bertrand and Kramarz (2002)  Aghion et al. (2008)  Chari (2007)  Klapan et al. (2009)  Bruhn (2008)  Cross-country comparisons  Djankov, La Porta, Lopez-De-Silanes and Shleifer (2002)  Ciccone and Papaioannou (2007)  Klapper, Laeven and Rajan (2006)  Difficult inference problem None of these studies compare the characteristics of new firms created by the reform to those that emerged prior to its implementation Mar 30, 2011

3 We evaluate the impact of deregulation on the quality and nature of start-ups and entrepreneurs 3  What effect do entry reforms have on firm and job creation?  What types of entrepreneurs are induced to enter after reform?  How well do new “marginal” firm entrants perform over time? The social impact of deregulation is not only a function of the number of firms brought into the market but also their quality, size, performance and longetivity. Mar 30, 2011

4 What we do... 4 Use a unique Portuguese database Business Registration Reform - On the Spot Firm Program 1 a) different time periods ( ) a) different counties (164 one-stop shops - 44% total counties) c) applies to private firms in a broad range of industries a) detailed information about the founder b) match founders with venture characteristics (size and survival) c) use a difference-in-differences approach to quantify the impact of entry deregulation in Portuguese counties Develop a model to better frame the effects of deregulation reforms on several entrepreneurial outcomes 3 2 Mar 30, 2011

5 Portugal provides an excellent context in which to evaluate the impact of entry deregulation  Before the Program :  visit different public agencies  complete 11 procedures  fill out 20 documents  wait between 54 /78 days  pay almost 2,000€.  After the Program:  single visit to one-stop shop  complete 7 procedures.  finish in 1 hour  pay 360€ Portugal improved its position in the international competitive rakings (moved from 113rd to 33rd position in the Doing Business Raking) After the Program Filling for taxes Before the Program Obtain pre- approval of name Company Registration 5 Business Days Mar 30, 2011

6 Our data comes from the Portuguese matched employer-employee dataset 6  Matched Employer-Employee Dataset  mandatory database  227,000 firms and 2 million individuals per year  period: 1986 – 2008  Institute of Registration and Notarization (IRN)  opening date and location of each one-stop shop between 2005 and 2009 eligible industries firms founded between 2000 and ,595 new firms Firm Entry, Job Creation and Size identify at least 1 founder founders with age ,868 founders of 94,586 news firms Characteristics of Firms (Start-ups Survival) 30% sample of all individuals Insert founders characteristics 5,071,627 individuals, of whom 33,958 entrepreneurs Type of Entrepreneurs Mar 30, 2011

7 We explore the effect of simplifying business registration on several entrepreneurial outcomes 7  Dependent variable:  Number of newly formed firms per 100,000 inhabitants  Initial number of employees of start-ups per 100,000 inhabitants  Independent variables:  Dummy variables for each month (seasonal effects)  Dummy variables for each county and year  Monthly index of industrial production for the country  Indicator variables for program adoption Standard errors are clustered at the county level Mar 30, 2011

8 The reform is associated with an increase in the number of new firms and initial employment 8Mar 30, 2011

9 We also estimate a variant of our baseline regression 9 Firm EntryInitial Employment Mar 30, 2011

10 Agriculture, construction and retail trade were the sectors that saw a larger increase in entry 10 Construction Firms Mar 30, 2011

11 A distinctive feature of our data is the ability to examine the impact of the reform on firm survival 11  Dependent variable:  Two-year survival rate, equalling 1 if the start-up is still operating after two years  Independent variables:  Dummy variable for each industry (2-digit level)  Firm's initial size  Vector founder characteristics: age, gender, education, industry experience  Indicator variables for program adoption Mar 30, 2011

12 Firms established after the program had two year survival rates 4 percentage points lower. 12Mar 30, 2011

13 Next, we evaluate the impact of the program on the characteristics of the entrepreneurs 13  Dependent variable:  Probability that an individual founds a start-up in a given year  Independent variables:  Dummy variable for each year  Dummy variable for each county  Gross domestic product for 30 NUTS (Nomenclature of Unit for Territorial Statistics) regions  Indicator variables for program adoption Mar 30, 2011

14 Entry regulation reform leads to an increase in the entry of “marginal entrepreneurs” 14Mar 30, 2011

15 Portugal's substantial entry deregulation resulted in  Increased Firm and Job Creation  increase in the number of start-ups and initial jobs in eligible industries by approximately 17.2% and 21.7%, respectively  By “Marginal” Entrepreneurs  the increase is driven by entrepreneurs who are relatively older, more female and less educated  Who Created Relatively Low Quality Firms  start-ups created are relatively smaller, less likely to survive in their first two years and created primarily in low-tech industries This reform has brought benefits, but may not be the magic bullet some policymakers anticipated Mar 30, 2011

16 Thank You 16Mar 30, 2011

17 EXTRA SLIDES 17Mar 30, 2011

18 Our model provides a set of intuitive predictions about the effects of a reduction in entry costs 18 Agents can choose between:  Home production, w  Labor market, w  Entrepreneurship, π (different entrepreneurial ability θ) Let follow an uniform distribution,  Increased business formation: lower entry costs, increases the fraction of entrepreneurs  Increased employment: fewer agents are in home production.  All shifts occur at the margin: smaller firms, and lower survival probabilities Mar 30, 2011

19 There is an increase in the number of new firms and jobs, but firm’s size and survival decreases 19 Statistics for the 12 month prior and after the opening of one-stop shop Mar 30, 2011

20 Robustness Check 20 1 – Drop observations corresponding to one month before and after the opening of the one-stop shop Mar 30, 2011

21 Robustness Check 21 2 – Restrict the sample to Non- Eligible Industries Mar 30, 2011

22 Robustness Check 22 3 – Restrict the sample to Highly Educated Entrepreneurs Mar 30, 2011

23 Robustness Check Mar 30, – Restrict the sample to Novice Entrepreneurs

24 Robustness Check Mar 30, – Restrict the sample to entrepreneurs, who were previously working


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