Presentation on theme: "Memory Hierarchy Design Adapted from CS 252 Spring 2006 UC Berkeley Copyright (C) 2006 UCB."— Presentation transcript:
Memory Hierarchy Design Adapted from CS 252 Spring 2006 UC Berkeley Copyright (C) 2006 UCB
Since 1980, CPU has outpaced DRAM... CPU 60% per yr 2X in 1.5 yrs DRAM 9% per yr 2X in 10 yrs 10 DRAM CPU Performance (1/latency) Year Gap grew 50% per year Q. How do architects address this gap? A. Put smaller, faster “cache” memories between CPU and DRAM. Create a “memory hierarchy”.
1977: DRAM faster than microprocessors Apple ][ (1977) Steve Wozniak Steve Jobs CPU: 1000 ns DRAM: 400 ns
Levels of the Memory Hierarchy CPU Registers 100s Bytes <10s ns Cache K Bytes ns cents/bit Main Memory M Bytes 200ns- 500ns $ cents /bit Disk G Bytes, 10 ms (10,000,000 ns) cents/bit Capacity Access Time Cost Tape infinite sec-min Registers Cache Memory Disk Tape Instr. Operands Blocks Pages Files Staging Xfer Unit prog./compiler 1-8 bytes cache cntl bytes OS 512-4K bytes user/operator Mbytes Upper Level Lower Level faster Larger
Memory Hierarchy: Apple iMac G5 iMac G5 1.6 GHz 07 Reg L1 Inst L1 Data L2 DRA M Disk Size 1K64K32K512K256M80G Latenc y Cycles, Time 1, 0.6 ns 3, 1.9 ns 3, 1.9 ns 11, 6.9 ns 88, 55 ns 10 7, 12 ms Let programs address a memory space that scales to the disk size, at a speed that is usually as fast as register access Managed by compiler Managed by hardware Managed by OS, hardware, application Goal: Illusion of large, fast, cheap memory
iMac’s PowerPC 970: All caches on-chip (1K) R eg ist er s 512K L2 L1 (64K Instruction) L1 (32K Data)
Memory Hierarchy Provides (virtually) unlimited amounts of fast memory. Takes advantage of locality. –Principle of locality (p.47): Programs tend to reuse data and instructions they have used recently. (Temporal and Spatial) –Most programs do not access all code or data uniformly.
The Principle of Locality The Principle of Locality: –Program access a relatively small portion of the address space at any instant of time. Two Different Types of Locality: –Temporal Locality (Locality in Time): If an item is referenced, it will tend to be referenced again soon (e.g., loops, reuse) –Spatial Locality (Locality in Space): If an item is referenced, items whose addresses are close by tend to be referenced soon (e.g., straightline code, array access) Last 15 years, HW relied on locality for speed It is a property of programs which is exploited in machine design.
Programs with locality cache well... Donald J. Hatfield, Jeanette Gerald: Program Restructuring for Virtual Memory. IBM Systems Journal 10(3): (1971) Time Memory Address (one dot per access) Spatial Locality Temporal Locality Bad locality behavior
Multi-Level Memory Hierarchy typical values smaller faster more expensive
Goal: To provide a memory system with cost almost as low as the cheapest level of memory and speed almost as fast as the fastest level All data in one level are found in the level below. (The upper level is a subset of the lower level.) Memory Hierarchy
Why Important? Microprocessor performance improved 35% per year until 1986, and 55% per year since Memory: 7% per year performance improvement in latency Processor-memory performance gap
Memory Hierarchy: Terminology Hit: data appears in some block in the upper level (example: Block X) –Hit Rate: the fraction of memory access found in the upper level –Hit Time: Time to access the upper level which consists of RAM access time + Time to determine hit/miss Miss: data needs to be retrieve from a block in the lower level (Block Y) –Miss Rate = 1 - (Hit Rate) –Miss Penalty: Time to replace a block in the upper level + Time to deliver the block the processor Hit Time << Miss Penalty (500 instructions on 21264!) Lower Level Memory Upper Level Memory To Processor From Processor Blk X Blk Y
Cache Measures Hit rate: fraction found in that level –So high that usually talk about Miss rate –Miss rate fallacy: as MIPS to CPU performance, miss rate to average memory access time in memory Average memory-access time = Hit time + Miss rate x Miss penalty (ns or clocks) Miss penalty: time to replace a block from lower level, including time to replace in CPU –access time: time to lower level = f(latency to lower level) –transfer time: time to transfer block =f(BW between upper & lower levels)
Cache Performance Memory stall cycles = Number of misses x Miss penalty = Misses IC x x Miss penalty = Instruction Memory accesses IC x x Miss rate x Miss penalty Instruction
Example Assume we have a computer where the clocks per instruction (CPI) is 1.0 when all memory accesses hit in the cache. The only data accesses are loads and stores, and these total 50% of the instructions. If the miss penalty is 25 clock cycles and the miss rate is 2%, how much faster would the computer be if all instructions were cache hits?
4 Questions for Memory Hierarchy Q1: Where can a block be placed in the upper level? (Block placement) Q2: How is a block found if it is in the upper level? (Block identification) Q3: Which block should be replaced on a miss? (Block replacement) Q4: What happens on a write? (Write strategy)
Block Placement Direct Mapped –(block address) mod (number of blocks in cache) Fully-associative Set associative –(block address) mod (number of sets in cache) –n-way set associative: n blocks in a set
The vast majority of processor caches today are direct mapped, two-way set associative, or four-way set associative.
Block Identification used to check all the blocks in the set used to select the set address of the desired data within the block address
DECstation 3100 cache block size = one word
64KB Cache Using 4-Word Blocks
Block Size vs. Miss Rate Increasing block size: decreasing miss rate. –The instruction references have better spatial locality. Serious problem with just increasing the block size: miss penalty increases. –Miss penalty: the time required to fetch the block from the next lower level of the hierarchy and load it into the cache. –Miss penalty = (latency to the first word) + (transfer time for the rest of the block)
Block Size vs. Miss Rate
Block Identification If the total cache size is kept the same, increasing associativity –increases the number of blocks per set –decreases the size of the index –increases the size of the tag
Block Replacement With direct-mapped –Only one block frame is checked for a hit, and only that block can be replaced. With fully associative or set associative, –Random –Least-recently used (LRU) –First in, First out (FIFO) See Figure 5.6 on p. 400.
Write Strategy Write through –The information is written to both the block in the cache and to the block in the memory. –Easier to implement, the cache is always clean. Write back –The information is written only to the block in the cache. The modified block is written to main memory only when it is replaced. –Less memory bandwidth, less power Write through with write buffer
What happens on a write? Write-ThroughWrite-Back Policy Data written to cache block also written to lower-level memory Write data only to the cache Update lower level when a block falls out of the cache DebugEasyHard Do read misses produce writes? NoYes Do repeated writes make it to lower level? YesNo Additional option -- let writes to an un-cached address allocate a new cache line (“write-allocate”).
Write Buffers for Write-Through Caches Q. Why a write buffer ? Processor Cache Write Buffer Lower Level Memory Holds data awaiting write-through to lower level memory A. So CPU doesn’t stall Q. Why a buffer, why not just one register ? A. Bursts of writes are common. Q. Are Read After Write (RAW) hazards an issue for write buffer? A. Yes! Drain buffer before next read, or send read 1 st after check write buffers.
Write Miss Policy Write allocate –The block is allocated on a write miss, followed by the write hit. No-write allocate –Write misses do not affect the cache. –Unusual –The block is modified only in the memory.
Exampl Assume a fully associative write-back cache with many cache entries that starts empty. What are the number of hits and misses when using no- write allocate versus write allocate? Write Mem; Read Mem; Write Mem; Write Mem;
Write Miss Policy Write-back caches use write allocate normally. Write-through caches often use no-write allocate.
Example Assuming a cache of 16K blocks (1 block = 1 word) and 32-bit addressing, find the total number of sets and the total number of tag bits that are direct-mapped, 2-way set-associative, 4-way set-associative, and fully associative. Assume that this machine is byte-addressable.
Cache Performance Average memory access time = Hit time + Miss rate X Miss penalty