Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADS"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADS The American Nation In the Modern Era4/8/2017Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADSSection 1: War in the WestSection 2: Western FarmersSection 3: The Cattle BoomSection 4: The Mining BoomCHAPTER 5--THE WESTERN CROSSROADS
2Objectives: Section 1: War in the West Why did the U.S. government create the American Indian reservation system?What were the sources of conflict between the Plains Indians and the U.S. government?How did Chief Joseph, Geronimo, and Sarah Winnemucca respond to whites’ treatment of American Indians?How did the U.S. government try to assimilate American Indians?
3The reservation system Section 1: War in the WestThe reservation systemcreated to serve desire for farmland and goldgave government control of American Indiansprovided opportunity for assimilation of American Indians
4The Plains Indians and the U.S. government Section 1: War in the WestThe Plains Indians and the U.S. governmentconflicts over land and reservationsconflicts over broken promises and treatiesconflicts over the Ghost Dance
5Chief Joseph’s response Section 1: War in the WestChief Joseph’s responseagreed to move tribe to a reservationfled from the U.S. Army and eventually surrendered
6Geronimo’s response Section 1: War in the West fled reservation with his tribe; raided settlementseventually surrendered
7Sarah Winnemucca’s response Section 1: War in the WestSarah Winnemucca’s responsecalled attention to problemsmade speeches; participated in political activities
8Assimilation attempts Section 1: War in the WestAssimilation attemptsestablishment of reservationscreation of Indian schoolspassage of the Dawes Act
9Objectives: Section 2: Western Farmers How did the U.S. government promote economic development in the West?Why did people migrate west?How did the environment influence farming practices and daily life in the West?What difficulties did farm families face on the Great Plains?
10Promotion of economic development Section 2: Western FarmersPromotion of economic developmentHomestead Act permitted any citizen or intended citizen to have 160 acres of land.Pacific Railway Act gave lands to railroad companies to develop the transcontinental railroad.Morrill Act provided more than 17 million acres of land whose sale was to finance agricultural and engineering colleges.
11Migration west Section 2: Western Farmers White Americans sought cheaper lands or wanted to make a new start.African Americans wanted to escape persecution in the South.Scandinavians had “America Fever.”Irish moved west after building railroads.Russian Mennonites moved after Russian czar ended their exemption from military service.Chinese came during Gold Rush and turned to farming.
12Environmental influence Section 2: Western FarmersEnvironmental influenceLack of water and strong winds led to dry farming and irrigation.Lack of trees led to use of buffalo manure as fuel and building material.Harsh winters led to use of new varieties of wheat that withstood the weather.
13Difficulties for farm families Section 2: Western FarmersDifficulties for farm familiespoor housingblizzards and cold weatherdroughtsinsectsprairie firesbackbreaking work
14Objectives: Section 3: The Cattle Boom How did cattle and sheep ranching develop in the West?What was life like for cowboys and residents of cattle towns?What were ranches like?Why did the cattle boom on the open range end?
15Development of cattle ranching Section 3: The Cattle BoomDevelopment of cattle ranchingintroduction of the Texas longhornexpansion of eastern beef market
16Development of sheep ranching Section 3: The Cattle BoomDevelopment of sheep ranchingintroduced by Spanishalso done by American Indiansmarket expansion sparked by Gold Rush
17Cowboy life Section 3: The Cattle Boom demanding working conditions isolationtrail drives
18Town life Section 3: The Cattle Boom busy from spring to fall from cattle drivesbusinesses attracted by the money that cowboys received at end of drivefamilies followed businesses
19Ranches Section 3: The Cattle Boom hard work for both genders lonely centered around roundup
20End of the cattle boom Section 3: The Cattle Boom cattle glut invention of barbed wiredepletion of grassbad weather
21Objectives: Section 4: The Mining Boom What role did mining play in bringing more people west?How did the arrival of families change life in mining camps?Why did large companies take over most mining operations, and how did this change the lives of miners?
22Role of mining Section 4: The Mining Boom Mining attracted people to the West by presenting the possibility of great wealth.
23Arrival of families Section 4: The Mining Boom Families brought stability and transformed temporary towns into permanent ones.Families brought law and order.Families established churches, newspapers, schools, and cultural establishments.
24Takeover by large companies Section 4: The Mining BoomTakeover by large companiesIt was expensive to mine the deep, less accessible deposits.Technology rather than luck required to locate deposits.Miners became laborers for corporations rather than self-employed individuals.Working conditions in mines were dangerous.Some miners formed unions to get better wages and working conditions.