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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADS Section 1: War in the West Section 2: Western.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADS Section 1: War in the West Section 2: Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 5 THE WESTERN CROSSROADS Section 1: War in the West Section 2: Western Farmers Section 3: The Cattle Boom Section 4: The Mining Boom

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 2 Objectives: Why did the U.S. government create the American Indian reservation system? Why did the U.S. government create the American Indian reservation system? What were the sources of conflict between the Plains Indians and the U.S. government? What were the sources of conflict between the Plains Indians and the U.S. government? How did Chief Joseph, Geronimo, and Sarah Winnemucca respond to whites’ treatment of American Indians? How did Chief Joseph, Geronimo, and Sarah Winnemucca respond to whites’ treatment of American Indians? How did the U.S. government try to assimilate American Indians? How did the U.S. government try to assimilate American Indians? Section 1: War in the West

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 3 The reservation system created to serve desire for farmland and gold created to serve desire for farmland and gold gave government control of American Indians gave government control of American Indians provided opportunity for assimilation of American Indians provided opportunity for assimilation of American Indians Section 1: War in the West

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 4 The Plains Indians and the U.S. government conflicts over land and reservations conflicts over land and reservations conflicts over broken promises and treaties conflicts over broken promises and treaties conflicts over the Ghost Dance conflicts over the Ghost Dance Section 1: War in the West

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 5 Chief Joseph’s response agreed to move tribe to a reservation agreed to move tribe to a reservation fled from the U.S. Army and eventually surrendered fled from the U.S. Army and eventually surrendered Section 1: War in the West

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 6 Geronimo’s response fled reservation with his tribe; raided settlements fled reservation with his tribe; raided settlements eventually surrendered eventually surrendered Section 1: War in the West

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 7 Sarah Winnemucca’s response called attention to problems called attention to problems made speeches; participated in political activities made speeches; participated in political activities Section 1: War in the West

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 8 Assimilation attempts establishment of reservations establishment of reservations creation of Indian schools creation of Indian schools passage of the Dawes Act passage of the Dawes Act Section 1: War in the West

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 9 Objectives: How did the U.S. government promote economic development in the West? How did the U.S. government promote economic development in the West? Why did people migrate west? Why did people migrate west? How did the environment influence farming practices and daily life in the West? How did the environment influence farming practices and daily life in the West? What difficulties did farm families face on the Great Plains? What difficulties did farm families face on the Great Plains? Section 2: Western Farmers

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 10 Promotion of economic development Homestead Act permitted any citizen or intended citizen to have 160 acres of land. Homestead Act permitted any citizen or intended citizen to have 160 acres of land. Pacific Railway Act gave lands to railroad companies to develop the transcontinental railroad. Pacific Railway Act gave lands to railroad companies to develop the transcontinental railroad. Morrill Act provided more than 17 million acres of land whose sale was to finance agricultural and engineering colleges. Morrill Act provided more than 17 million acres of land whose sale was to finance agricultural and engineering colleges. Section 2: Western Farmers

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 11 Migration west White Americans sought cheaper lands or wanted to make a new start. White Americans sought cheaper lands or wanted to make a new start. African Americans wanted to escape persecution in the South. African Americans wanted to escape persecution in the South. Scandinavians had “America Fever.” Scandinavians had “America Fever.” Irish moved west after building railroads. Irish moved west after building railroads. Russian Mennonites moved after Russian czar ended their exemption from military service. Russian Mennonites moved after Russian czar ended their exemption from military service. Chinese came during Gold Rush and turned to farming. Chinese came during Gold Rush and turned to farming. Section 2: Western Farmers

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 12 Environmental influence Lack of water and strong winds led to dry farming and irrigation. Lack of water and strong winds led to dry farming and irrigation. Lack of trees led to use of buffalo manure as fuel and building material. Lack of trees led to use of buffalo manure as fuel and building material. Harsh winters led to use of new varieties of wheat that withstood the weather. Harsh winters led to use of new varieties of wheat that withstood the weather. Section 2: Western Farmers

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 13 Difficulties for farm families poor housing poor housing blizzards and cold weather blizzards and cold weather droughts droughts insects insects prairie fires prairie fires backbreaking work backbreaking work Section 2: Western Farmers

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 14 Objectives: How did cattle and sheep ranching develop in the West? How did cattle and sheep ranching develop in the West? What was life like for cowboys and residents of cattle towns? What was life like for cowboys and residents of cattle towns? What were ranches like? What were ranches like? Why did the cattle boom on the open range end? Why did the cattle boom on the open range end? Section 3: The Cattle Boom

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 15 Development of cattle ranching introduction of the Texas longhorn introduction of the Texas longhorn expansion of eastern beef market expansion of eastern beef market Section 3: The Cattle Boom

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 16 Development of sheep ranching introduced by Spanish introduced by Spanish also done by American Indians also done by American Indians market expansion sparked by Gold Rush market expansion sparked by Gold Rush Section 3: The Cattle Boom

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 17 Cowboy life demanding working conditions demanding working conditions isolation isolation trail drives trail drives Section 3: The Cattle Boom

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 18 Town life busy from spring to fall from cattle drives busy from spring to fall from cattle drives businesses attracted by the money that cowboys received at end of drive businesses attracted by the money that cowboys received at end of drive families followed businesses families followed businesses Section 3: The Cattle Boom

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 19 Ranches hard work for both genders hard work for both genders lonely lonely centered around roundup centered around roundup Section 3: The Cattle Boom

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 20 End of the cattle boom cattle glut cattle glut invention of barbed wire invention of barbed wire depletion of grass depletion of grass bad weather bad weather Section 3: The Cattle Boom

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 21 Objectives: What role did mining play in bringing more people west? What role did mining play in bringing more people west? How did the arrival of families change life in mining camps? How did the arrival of families change life in mining camps? Why did large companies take over most mining operations, and how did this change the lives of miners? Why did large companies take over most mining operations, and how did this change the lives of miners? Section 4: The Mining Boom

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 22 Role of mining Mining attracted people to the West by presenting the possibility of great wealth. Section 4: The Mining Boom

23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 23 Arrival of families Families brought stability and transformed temporary towns into permanent ones. Families brought stability and transformed temporary towns into permanent ones. Families brought law and order. Families brought law and order. Families established churches, newspapers, schools, and cultural establishments. Families established churches, newspapers, schools, and cultural establishments. Section 4: The Mining Boom

24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 24 Takeover by large companies It was expensive to mine the deep, less accessible deposits. It was expensive to mine the deep, less accessible deposits. Technology rather than luck required to locate deposits. Technology rather than luck required to locate deposits. Miners became laborers for corporations rather than self-employed individuals. Miners became laborers for corporations rather than self-employed individuals. Working conditions in mines were dangerous. Working conditions in mines were dangerous. Some miners formed unions to get better wages and working conditions. Some miners formed unions to get better wages and working conditions. Section 4: The Mining Boom


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