Presentation on theme: "American Indian History 19 th Century. Broken Treaties Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) --government agency for managing American Indian issues U.S. government."— Presentation transcript:
American Indian History 19 th Century
Broken Treaties Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) --government agency for managing American Indian issues U.S. government gave American Indians money and promises of other land and supplies in exchange for their land
Reservation System created to serve desire for farmland and gold gave government control over American Indians used to assimilate American Indians
Violence in the West Sand Creek Massacre (1864)—as they were about to surrender, 200 Cheyenne were killed by American forces, mostly women and children Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)—Sioux killed General Custer and his entire battalion, last victory of the Sioux
Violence in the West Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)—150 Sioux and 30 U.S. soldiers killed, marked the end of conflict on the Great Plains After some Nez Percé killed four white settlers, Chief Joseph led the tribe in an attempted escape to Canada.
Decline of the Buffalo
Assimilation cultural absorption of American Indians into “white America” schools were set up for American Indians made them learn and speak English lost their cultural ties: “Americanization” government felt this was for Indian survival
Dawes General Allotment Act (1887) gave American Indians an allotment of reservation land for farming any remaining land would be sold lost majority of their land many Indians rejected this system Some land was not suitable for farming
The West What is a frontier? How has the frontier changed throughout American history? What happened to the frontier? How did this change the foreign policies of the United States?
Land Acts Homestead Act (1862)—law that encouraged settlement in the West by giving government- owned land to small farmers Morrill Act (1862)—federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges
Who moved West? 1. whites from the East—searching for available cheap land 2. exodusters—African Americans who settled in the West after Reconstruction to escape the South 3. immigrants—northern and western Europeans (i.e. Scandinavians, Irish)