2Broken Treaties Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) --government agency for managing American Indian issuesU.S. government gave American Indians money and promises of other land and supplies in exchange for their land
3Reservation System created to serve desire for farmland and gold gave government control over American Indiansused to assimilate American Indians
4Violence in the WestSand Creek Massacre (1864)—as they were about to surrender, 200 Cheyenne were killed by American forces, mostly women and childrenBattle of Little Bighorn (1876)—Sioux killed General Custer and his entire battalion, last victory of the Sioux
5Violence in the WestMassacre at Wounded Knee (1890)—150 Sioux and 30 U.S. soldiers killed, marked the end of conflict on the Great PlainsAfter some Nez Percé killed four white settlers, Chief Joseph led the tribe in an attempted escape to Canada.
9Assimilationcultural absorption of American Indians into “white America”schools were set up for American Indiansmade them learn and speak Englishlost their cultural ties: “Americanization”government felt this was for Indian survival
11Dawes General Allotment Act (1887) gave American Indians an allotment of reservation land for farmingany remaining land would be soldlost majority of their landmany Indians rejected this systemSome land was not suitable for farming
12The West What is a frontier? How has the frontier changed throughout American history?What happened to the frontier?How did this change the foreign policies of the United States?
13Land ActsHomestead Act (1862)—law that encouraged settlement in the West by giving government-owned land to small farmersMorrill Act (1862)—federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges
14Who moved West?1. whites from the East—searching for available cheap land2. exodusters—African Americans who settled in the West after Reconstruction to escape the South3. immigrants—northern and western Europeans (i.e. Scandinavians, Irish)