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CHAPTER 14 Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances.

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1 CHAPTER 14 Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives Which foreign markets to enter? Early or Late Entry? Large scale or small scale entry? Evaluation the modes of entry Exporting Licensing Turnkey Projects

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives Evaluation the modes of entry Franchising Joint Ventures Wholly Owned Subsidiary Application to selected products

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Chapter Focus Examine: The decision on which foreign markets to enter, when to enter them, and on what scale. The choice of entry mode. The role of strategic alliances.

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Which Foreign Markets Politically unstable developing nations. Speculative financial bubbles have led to excess borrowing. Favorable benefit-cost-risk trade-off Politically stable nations. Free market systems No dramatic upsurge in inflation or private sector debt. Mixed or command economies.

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved First-mover advantage. Preempt rivals and capture demand. Build sales volume. Move down experience curve before rivals and achieve cost advantage. Create switching costs. Disadvantages: First mover disadvantage - pioneering costs. Changes in government policy. Timing of Entry Costs early entrant bears that later entrant can avoid.

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Scale of Entry and Strategic Commitments Strategic Commitments - a decision that has a long- term impact and is difficult to reverse. Large scale entry: Commitment of significant resources. Easier to attract customers (will remain in market). May cause rivals to rethink market entry. Fewer resources to commit elsewhere. May lead to indigenous competitive response. Plus Minus

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Scale of Entry and Strategic Commitments Small Scale Entry: Time to learn about the market. Limits company exposure. May be difficult to build market share. Difficult to capture first-mover advantages. Plus Minus

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Entry Modes Exporting Turnkey Projects Licensing Franchising Joint Ventures Wholly Owned Subsidiaries

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Exporting Advantages: Avoids cost of establishing manufacturing operations. May help achieve experience curve and location economies. Disadvantages: May compete with low-cost location manufacturers. Possible high transportation costs. Tariff barriers. Possible lack of control over marketing reps.

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Turnkey Projects Advantages: Can earn a return on knowledge asset. Less risky than conventional FDI. Disadvantages: No long-term interest in the foreign country. May create a competitor. Selling process technology may be selling competitive advantage as well. Contractor agrees to handle every detail of project for foreign client.

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Advantages: Reduces development costs and risks of establishing foreign enterprise. Lack capital for venture. Unfamiliar or politically volatile market. Overcomes restrictive investment barriers. Others can develop business applications of intangible property. Disadvantages: Lack of control. Cross-border licensing may be difficult. Creating a competitor. Licensing Agreement where licensor grants rights to intangible property to another entity for a specified period of time in return for royalties. Risk Reduction  Cross-licensing  Joint venture

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Franchising Advantages: Reduces costs and risk of establishing enterprise. Disadvantages: May prohibit movement of profits from one country to support operations in another country. Quality control. Franchiser sells intangible property and insists on rules for operating business.

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Joint Ventures Advantages: Benefit from local partner’s knowledge. Shared costs/risks with partner. Reduced political risk. Disadvantages: Risk giving control of technology to partner. May not realize experience curve or location economies. Shared ownership can lead to conflict.

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Wholly Owned Subsidiary Advantages: No risk of losing technical competence to a competitor. Tight control of operations. Realize learning curve and location economies. Disadvantage: Bear full cost and risk. Greenfield Acquisition

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Advantages and Disadvantages of Entry Modes Table 14.1a Exporting Ability to realize location and experience curve economies High transport costs Trade barriers Problems with local marketing agents Turnkey contracts Ability to earn returns from process technology skills in countries where FDI is restricted Creating efficient competitors Lack of long-term market presence Licensing Low development costs and risks Lack of control over technology Inability to realize location and experience curve economies Inability to engage in global strategic coordination DisadvantageAdvantageEntry Mode

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Advantages and Disadvantages of Entry Modes Table 14.1b Franchising Low development costs and risks Lack of control over quality Inability to engage in global strategic coordination Joint ventures Access to local partner’s knowledge Sharing development costs and risks Politically acceptable Lack of control over technology Inability to engage in global strategic coordination Inability to realize location and experience economies Wholly owned subsidiaries Protection of technology Ability to engage in global strategic coordination Ability to realize location and experience economies High costs and risks Entry ModeDisadvantage Advantage

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Selecting an Entry Mode Technological Know-How Management Know-How Wholly owned subsidiary, except: 1. Venture is structured to reduce risk of loss of technology. 2. Technology advantage is transitory. Then licensing or joint venture OK. Franchising, subsidiaries (wholly owned or joint venture). Pressure for Cost Reduction Combination of exporting and wholly owned subsidiary.


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