Presentation on theme: "Instructions for users This slide presentation provides an overview of immunizing with the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine. This slide set should be used together."— Presentation transcript:
Instructions for users This slide presentation provides an overview of immunizing with the SA JE vaccine. This slide set should be used together with the manual “Immunizing Children Against Japanese Encephalitis using SA Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Training Module for Vaccinators”. Below some of the slides, there are notes to explain the information in the slide. You should adapt the presentation for your own use.
Immunizing Children Against Japanese Encephalitis with SA JE Vaccine
Learning Objectives Participants will: Be familiar with key facts on SA JE vaccine. Demonstrate correct vaccine administration techniques. Describe appropriate JE vaccine storage. Describe safe disposal of used needles and syringes. Communicate more effectively with parents of children being vaccinated.
Facts about SA JE vaccine SA is a live, attenuated vaccine. Licensed in the People’s Republic of China in Currently about 60 million doses are used annually in China. Also licensed and used in South Korea, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Nepal. Produced in primary hamster kidney cell cultures.
Administering Japanese encephalitis vaccine Who should be given JE vaccine? Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
The following two slides need to be adapted according to the strategy and immunization schedule in your area An example is given
For areas where JE vaccine is newly introduced A one-time preventive or “catch-up”campaign will be conducted. This will include children 1 to 15 years of age.
For routine immunization All children who are 9 months of age should receive a dose of JE vaccine. Age Vaccines Given BirthBCG HepB1 6 WeeksOPV1 DTP1 10 WeeksOPV2 DTP2 HepB2 14 WeeksOPV3 DTP3 HepB3 9 MonthsMeasles JE1 5 yearsMeasles Standard immunization schedule
What if a dose is missed? If a child misses the date for vaccination, the child should make up the dose as soon as possible. There is no need to re-start the vaccination schedule. Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
The SA vaccine (1) SA is a lyophilized vaccine that needs to be reconstituted (mixed with diluent) before use. Prior to reconstitution it is a milky-white caked powder. After mixing with diluent it becomes a transparent pink liquid.
After mixing with diluent, the vaccine is a transparent pink liquid. Photo credit: Chengdu Institute of Biological Products
The SA vaccine (2) Provided in single-dose or 5-dose vials. Comes with two separate vials 1.Lyophilized (freeze-dried) JE vaccine 2.Diluent
The diluent and vaccine (5-dose vial) Photo credit: Chengdu Institute of Biological Products
Dosage and administration Dosage is 0.5 mL (all ages). Subcutaneous injection. Normally given in outer upper arm.
What are the steps to follow when immunizing a child against JE disease? Initial assessment with parents and child. Prepare the vaccine. Give the injection.
Before preparing the vaccine (1) 1.Greet the parents. 2.Evaluate the child’s immunization card and check what vaccine(s) are needed. 3.Explain the vaccine to the parents, including possible side effects and how to manage them. 4.Ask if the parent has any questions. 5.Check to make sure the correct vaccine is available. 6.Discuss with parents when to return for the next vaccination.
7.Prepare your supplies. Before preparing the vaccine (2) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
1.Read the expiry date on the vaccine vial. –If the expiry date has passed, discard the vial. –If the label has fallen off, discard the vial. –If the VVM is at stage III or IV, discard the vial and inform your supervisor. Prepare the vaccine (1) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
2.Make sure you have the correct, manufacturer-supplied diluent. Check the vial is in tact and read the expiry date. –If the correct diluent is not available, do not reconstitute the vaccine with anything else. –Discard the vial if ▫ the expiry date has passed. ▫ the label has fallen off. ▫ the vial is cracked. Prepare the vaccine (2)
3.Remove the plastic flip-off cap from the diluent vial and the vaccine vial. 4.Do not remove the rubber stopper. Prepare the vaccine (3) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
5.Reconstitute only with the manufacturer- supplied diluent. 6.Using a sterile syringe with mixing needle, draw up the diluent. Prepare the vaccine (4) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
7.Insert the needle into the lyophilized JE vaccine vial. Prepare the vaccine (5) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
8.Inject the diluent into the lyophilized vaccine vial. Prepare the vaccine (6) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
9.Discard the mixing needle and syringe. Prepare the vaccine (7) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
10.Shake the vial with the diluent and lyophilized vaccine gently, but thoroughly. –The vaccine should be uniformly pink when completely mixed. 11.After reconstitution the vaccine should be stored between 2°C and 8°C. Do not freeze reconstituted JE vaccine. 12.Used reconstituted vaccine within x hours (adapt slide according to country regulations for this vaccine). Discard any vaccine remaining after this time. Prepare the vaccine (8)
1.Draw up the reconstituted vaccine, using a new sterile needle and syringe for each injection. –The needle and syringe used for reconstitution should not be used for giving the injection. Giving the injection (1) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
2.Give: –0.5 ml of JE vaccine. –As a subcutaneous injection. –In the outer upper arm, avoiding the BCG scar. Giving the injection (2)
3.To give a subcutaneous injection: –Position child sideways on mother’s lap. –Ask the parent to hold the child’s legs. –Reach fingers around child’s arm and pinch up the skin. –Push the needle into the fatty layer between the skin and the muscle on the child’s upper, outer arm. –The direction of the needle is towards the shoulder. –Do not push the needle too far in. Giving the injection (3) Photo credit: WHO, Immunization in Practice
4.Dispose of the needle and syringe immediately in the safety box. –Needles should not be recapped due to the danger of needle-stick injury. Giving the injection (4) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
5.Record the date of vaccination on the child’s vaccination card. 6.Remind parents about when to bring the child back for the next vaccination. Giving the injection (5)
What are the possible side effects of JE vaccine? (1) Some children may experience mild symptoms such as tenderness or swelling at the injection site, rash, mild fever, nausea, or dizziness. — These side effects are not serious and will not last more than a few days. Neither acute encephalitis nor hypersensitivity reactions have been associated with the SA vaccine.
What are the possible side effects of JE vaccine? (2) JE vaccine does not cause JE disease. If a child becomes unusually or severely ill in the days following the immunization, the parents should bring the child to a hospital or clinic as soon as possible.
What are the contra-indications to SA JE vaccine? A very severe adverse reaction (anaphylaxis) to a prior dose of SA JE vaccine. Known allergy to any vaccine component (gelatin, gentamicin, kanamycin). Immunosuppression (due to disease or medication) or having the signs and symptoms of AIDS. Pregnancy Note: if a child has a fever higher than 38.5°C, vaccination should be postponed. An appointment should be made for vaccination as soon as possible after the fever settles.
How do you store JE vaccine? Powdered, lyophilized JE vaccine should be stored below 8°C, protected from light. After reconstitution, the vaccine should be stored between 2°C and 8°C. Do not freeze reconstituted JE vaccine. The vaccine should be discarded after x hours* or at the end of the immunization session, whichever comes first. *Insert regulations for this vaccine for your country
How can you safely dispose of used syringes and needles? (1) 1.Keep a safety box within reach whenever you give injections. Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
2.Immediately after giving an injection, place the used needle and syringe in the safety box. How can you safely dispose of used syringes and needles? (2) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
3.If no official safety box is available, use a hard plastic container for disposing of used syringes and needles. –Clearly mark the container “SHARPS” so others will know to dispose of it properly. 4.When the box is ¾ full, seal the box and burn it in an incinerator. –If there is no incinerator, burn the safety box in a metal drum or shallow pit. 5.After burning, bury all remaining ashes and debris (including burned needles and melted plastic). How can you safely dispose of used syringes and needles?
Monitoring use of JE vaccine Record JE vaccine doses given on the child’s immunization card and clinic record. Record doses of JE vaccine used on the routine reporting form. Think about ways to reduce wastage.
How can you help ensure that parents bring their children for all needed immunizations? (1) Be friendly and courteous in all interactions with parents. Listen respectfully to parents’ questions and concerns. Answer questions and explain things simply and clearly. — Be patient with people who cannot read or who have not attended school.
How can you help ensure that parents bring their children for all needed immunizations? (2) Speak the local language and use words the parents can understand. Find out when it is convenient for parents to bring their children for immunization and offer immunizations at those times. Maintain a regular immunization schedule so that parents know when to come. — Clearly post the schedule where parents will see it.
Explain to parents when and why the child should return for future vaccinations. — Remind them to bring the child’s vaccination card. — Assure them that the child should be vaccinated even if he or she has a slight fever or cold. Ensure a smooth patient flow so that children are seen in the order they arrive, and without unnecessary delay. Allow only one family at a time in the immunization area. How can you help ensure that parents bring their children for all needed immunizations? (3)
Help parents understand possible common side effects and how they can treat the symptoms. Explain what to do in case of uncommon allergic reactions. Before the parent leaves the clinic, be sure he or she knows when the child’s next vaccine is due. Guide the parents and child to the exit after giving the immunization and thank them for coming. How can you help ensure that parents bring their children for all needed immunizations? (4)
Ask community leaders, school teachers and community organizations to help educate parents about full immunization and motivate or assist them to bring their children on time. How can you help ensure that parents bring their children for all needed immunizations? (5) Photo credit: Lisa Lundgren
Acknowledgements Please include the following acknowledgement if you use this slide set: This slide set was adapted from a slide set prepared by Lisa Lundgren, Northrop Grumman Contractor with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and PATH’s Japanese Encephalitis Project. For information: