Presentation on theme: "1 1 Corinthians 14 The problem of the overemphasis of the gift of tongues is treated directly. The length of these three corrective chapters indicated."— Presentation transcript:
1 1 Corinthians 14 The problem of the overemphasis of the gift of tongues is treated directly. The length of these three corrective chapters indicated the gravity of the abuse of a Babel-like exercise in the church. In the days of supernatural revelation, prophecy was to be the most important gift over speaking in tongues. The principles of 1 Cor must be the governing rules of practicing all the gifts.
2 Ecstatic Utterances Practice of ecstatic utterances was common Devotees of a god would drink and dance themselves into frenzies and semiconsciousness or even unconsciousness —an experience they considered to be the highest form of communion with the divine. They believed that in such drunkenness their spirits left their bodies and communed directly with the god or gods, a practice to which Paul alludes in Ephesians 5:18. The ecstatic speaking that often accompanied such experiences was thought to be the language of the gods. MacArthur, J. (1996, c1984). 1 Corinthians. Chicago: Moody Press.
3 Pagan Tongues Speaking The Greeks also used erōs to describe the experience. Though commonly used of sexual love, erōs also was used for any strongly sensual feeling or activity, and pagan ecstatic frenzies often were accompanied by sexual orgies and perversions of all sorts. In the church at Corinth much of the tongues–speaking had taken on the form and flavor of those pagan ecstasies. Emotionalism all but neutralized their rational senses, and selfish exhibitionism was common, with everyone wanting to do and say his own thing at the same time (v. 26).v. Services were bedlam and chaos, with little worship and little edification taking place. MacArthur, J. (1996, c1984). 1 Corinthians. Chicago: Moody Press.
4 Outline of Chapter 1. Tongue’s position is secondary to prophecy (v. 1-6);v. 2. Tongues are unintelligible by themselves (vv ) 3. Tongues are emotional rather than rational (vv ) 4. Tongue’s purpose was as a sign to unbelieving Jews (vv. 20–25); 5. Tongue’s proper procedure, or use, was systematic and orderly (vv. 26–40).
5 NAU 1 Cor 14:1-2 Priority of Selfish Tongues Violates Love Principle 1 Pursue love, yet desire earnestly spiritual gifts, but especially that you may prophesy. 2 For one who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men but to God; for no one understands, but in his spirit he speaks mysteries. de, a marker of an additive relation, but with the possible implication of some contrast; thus “emphasize both love and spiritual gifts” = gifts are to be for the benefit of others. pneumatikos, neuter, “things pertaining to the Spirit.” mallo, a comparative: “more importantly, to a greater degree” gar, connects a reason or explanation glossa, “language or nation” (identified by their distinct language). Used 21x in 1 Cor and only 3x in rest of writing. dioko,pres.act.imp. plural, “to run swiftly in order to catch some person or thing, to run after”; “to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire” thus, with great effort make sure genuine love is sought for spiritual service No where in the Bible is such divine tongue communication discussed, though common in pagan religions. In Jesus’ high priestly prayer (Jn 17) He prayed in his known language. He warned against using “meaningless repetition, as the Gentiles do, for they suppose that they will be heard for their many words” (Matt. 6:7) Paul returns to the final exhortation of 12:31 which was explained in ch. 13: Love always benefits others, and is not seeking personal benefits. From such strong emphasis, it is apparent that the Corinthians were very self-seeking, on an experience quest, rather than committed to serving each other. prophetizo, subj.act. plural, “to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire” Paul is not saying everyone should prophecy any more that everyone should be celibate (7:1) zeteo, pres.act.imp. plural, “to be jealous of, to esteem or pronounce vital, admire, praise”; “to be deeply committed to something, with the implication of accompanying desire - 'to be earnest, to set one's heart on, to be completely intent upon” especially the spiritual principles The Plural command means the priority and interest of the church should be what prophecy reveals. akouo, “hear, comprehend” They did not care if anyone understood or not. Their concern was for the excitement and self–gratification of speaking mysteries in the spirit. They did not care that the mysteries had no meaning to themselves or to anyone else. musterion, truths that require divine revelation to be understood. The context describes these revelations in a tongue were not being interpreted (vv. 13,19) The pagan mysteries intentionally remained mysterious, as unknown truths and principles that supposedly only the initiated elite were privileged to know. God always reveals meanings of mysteries! The Greek has no definite article, and such anarthrous constructions usually are translated with an indefinite article (see Acts 17:23, “to an unknown god”…). KJV wrongly translates, “the unknown god”.
6 14:3-4 Reason Tongues Alone is an Inferior Gift 3 But one who prophesies speaks to men for edification and exhortation and consolation. 4 One who speaks in a tongue edifies himself; but one who prophesies edifies the church. Spiritual gifts are meant to accomplish something spiritually and practically worthwhile, and are always meant to be of benefit to others, believer or unbeliever. Paul’s point here is sarcastic. (His sarcasm can also be seen in 4:8–10). Even true tongues must be interpreted in order to be understood, they cannot possibly edify anyone, including the person speaking, without such interpretation. Tongues cannot, therefore, be intended by God for private devotional use. Paul here is referring to the supposed value the Corinthians placed on their self–styled tongues– speaking. The satisfaction believers experienced in their abuse of tongues was self–satisfaction, which came from pride–induced emotion, not from spiritual edification. It is an illegitimate self– building, often building up nothing more than spiritual pride. It is not the act of speaking a prophecy or a revelation, but the content or meaning of the prophecy or revelation that edifies others. oikodomēn, “building up; increasing parts of a building or house” Conscious addition of wisdom and the revealed will of God to a practical life (Mat 7:24). 1 Cor 14:17– if there is no understanding, there is no edification. paraklēsin, “admonition, encouragement, comfort” always based on divine truth previously revealed. paramythian, “persuading, stimulating, arousing, and comforting,” used only here in the NT. Similar to exhortation, but more emotionally motivated, with “passion”.
7 14:5-6 The Love Principle must Dominate 5 Now I wish that you all spoke in tongues, but even more that you would prophesy; and greater is one who prophesies than one who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church may receive edifying. 6 But now, brethren, if I come to you speaking in tongues, what will I profit you unless I speak to you either by way of revelation or of knowledge or of prophecy or of teaching? Paul comes down pretty hard on tongues, but doesn’t want it to be despised, since the gift had not ceased at this writing Paul exaggerated to convey a principle. 1 Cor 7:7 I wish everyone could get along without marrying, These are corrective contexts, not directive contexts—Paul is not saying that everyone could or should speak in tongues. 1 Cor 12:30 Does everyone have the gift of healing? Of course not. Does God give all of us the ability to speak in unknown languages? Can everyone interpret unknown languages? No! Hypothetical situation: Likewise an exaggerated impossibility. Everyone does not receive even the superior gift of prophecy, but if there was a choice, prophecy would be better. glossais, pl, (vv. 6, 18, 22, 23,39) are all references to real languages. But glosse, sing. refers to gibberish in the same phonetic language of speaker (vv. 2, 4, 13, 14, 19, 27). KJV translates singular as “unknown tongue”. Reiterating the priority of the gifts: some are more important in the life of the church and are categorized in 5 groupings in 1 Cor 12:28, First…Second… third… then… also those… The only way tongues is to be considered as important as prophecy is when it is interpreted, because both gifts were designed to give revelations of the Word and will of God to the church. Four edifying means of communication from God to man: 3 are revelations and 1 is clarifying the revelation. 1 Corinthians 14:26 “What then shall we say, brothers? When you come together, everyone has a hymn, or a word of instruction, a revelation, a tongue or an interpretation.” All of these must be done for the strengthening of the church. opheleo, “be useful, beneficial or advantageous”– love is focused on benefiting others, whereas the tongues speakers were more interested in their own feelings or prominence. Introduction to a hypothetical situation as in v.5. Even if Paul did come speaking in a tongue there would be no profit to anybody! He later would say that he preferred to never speak in tongues in the church (14:19, “I would rather speak five understandable words that help others, than 10,000 words in a tongue”
8 14:7-9 Difference between Genuine and Fake Tongues 7 Yet even lifeless things, either flute or harp, in producing a sound, if they do not produce a distinction in the tones, how will it be known what is played on the flute or on the harp? 8 For if the bugle produces an indistinct sound, who will prepare himself for battle? 9 So also you, unless you utter by the tongue speech that is clear, how will it be known what is spoken? For you will be speaking into the air. diastole “meaningful difference in sound,” consistently reproduced to mean the same thing. Random, irreproducible, tones are merely noise. No information or benefit is communicated adelos “unknown, unreal, unrelated, unmarked”, thus a sound that has not significance or meaning. Mere noise has no meaning to anyone. Anyone trying to impress someone with meaningless noise is nonsense. An expression meaning “worthless or meaningless”. In 1 Cor 9:26 a boxer who swings at nothing only hits the air as useless effort There are 450 distinct sounds we can make with our vocal apparatus. Every language has a distinct set of phonetic, phonemic and morphologic sounds and structures, each with shared embedded meanings. Thus making communication possible. No two languages have the same sounds! If someone pretends to speak in a different language and uses the same phonetics, he is faking it or is self-deceived! eusemos “marked, recognizable” where each sound has specific meaning. Without this clarity communication is impossible.
9 14:10-11 Meaning Conveyance is Essential 10 There are, perhaps, a great many kinds of languages in the world, and no kind is without meaning. 11 If then I do not know the meaning of the language, I will be to the one who speaks a barbarian, and the one who speaks will be a barbarian to me. There is no such thing as a language that is meaningless and undecipherable. Gibberish is not a language. genos, “family, race, nationality, offspring.” If the same language is not shared mutually, then communication is impossible. By definition, not only must there be a genuine language, but also a common language between two people. dunamis, “power, strength, capacity, ability, meaning.” The power of a language is its ability to transmit and share information, ideas and feelings. barbaros, used by Greeks to describe anyone who was ignorant of Greek. Sound of this word resembles the sound of pagan languages: everything sounds alike.
10 14:12-14 Edification without Meaning is Impossible 12 So also you, since you are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek to abound for the edification of the church. 13 Therefore let one who speaks in a tongue pray that he may interpret. 14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but my mind is unfruitful. v. 9 and v.12 start with the same expression: both mean: “As musical instruments and languages must have meaning to be useful, so only the edifying gifts are beneficial” zelotes, “enthusiast, fanatical about, be a zealot for, admirer of.” If this is the case, then do it right: edify others. zeteo, present continuous, habitual action, “striving for, quest for, endeavor.” This is motivation and purpose of emphasizing the gifts. perisseuo, pres., “be more than enough, overflow, exceed.” Go overboard with edifying instruction. oikodome, emphatic position, “upbuilding, strengthening, encouraging, building.” Giving them truths to build their faith, life and relationships upon.” glossa, singular, reference to false tongue (plural is genuine gift). Thus what Paul says here does not apply to the genuine gift of tongues! In fact, he contradicts what he said earlier, so this is a sarcastic expression. Gifts are sovereignly distributed, “individually just as He wills” (12:11), not to be sought by individuals, rather accepted and used properly. Pagan rites included speaking ecstatic utterances considered special communications with a god, spirit-to- spirit, without understanding. It bypassed the mind and understanding saying mysteries ean, “if ever I were to…”, with the subjunctive means uncertainty or a hypothetical situation. V. 15 states he would never do this! This is not the Holy Spirit praying, but a human spirit saying gibberish, sounds that make absolutely no sense. This is the ridiculous notion of pagan tongues akarpos, “barren, useless, unproductive” If the mind is not used, then edification is impossible
11 14:15 All Praying and Singing should be in a Known Language 15 What is the outcome then? I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the mind also; I will sing with the spirit and I will sing with the mind also. Gk: “What then is it?” How do you tell what is true worship? Answer: Thee is no place for mindless ecstatic prayer or worship, thus Paul never used “Devotional Tongues” nous, “understanding” Mind is essential to true worship, because the will, understanding, personal commitment and meaningful expression all come from the mind. Buddhists believe in mindless repetition of prayers: Prayer Wheel. Every rotation of the wheel supposedly repeats thousands of prayers written inside the revolving wheel. True worship must come from the whole man (Deut 6:5; Mat 22:37), “love the Lord our God with all our heart, and all our soul and with all our mind” – Worship without the mind and understanding is merely meaningless Ritualism! The personal pronoun “I” focus on Paul’s personal worship practice (later public worship is considered). psalo, “sing” especially a psalm-like expression that is spontaneous or created in the mind as a conscious expression of one’s heart and understanding of God. A private devotional practice Singing without the mind’s understanding and agreement is empty repetition of meaningless phrases. Real worship singing is understanding and agreeing with the expression of the song, then voicing it to God
12 14:16-17 Praying in Tongues is Useless 16 Otherwise if you bless in the spirit only, how will the one who fills the place of the ungifted say the "Amen" at your giving of thanks, since he does not know what you are saying? 17 For you are giving thanks well enough, but the other person is not edified. ean + subjunctive is hypothetical situation. Here “spirit” means “in a tongue.” In v. 14, the one praying receives no benefit, now the hearer, likewise, gets nothing out of your prayer. idiotes, “untrained, unskilled, unpracticed” – Here it is someone who does not know the language spoken Amen is Hebrew., “So let it be,” A word of agreement or encouragement. Speaking hypothetically, because the speaker has no idea what he is saying, neither does the one listening oikodomeo, “built up, increase in wisdom and Bible knowledge.” If ineffective here, then such practice is not to be given any emphasis nor expression. Matt 13:23, “…the seed sown on good soil, this is the person who hears the word and understands. He bears fruit…”
13 14:18-19 Tongues is not for the Church Meeting Either 18 I thank God, I speak in tongues more than you all; 19 however, in the church I desire to speak five words with my mind so that I may instruct others also, rather than ten thousand words in a tongue. glossais, note the shift back to the plural. (Vs ref. to a “tongue” singular, which is the False or Fake tongue. Paul does not want to eliminate tongues, but to stop the excessive emphasis on the wrong practice of tongues. He will come down hard, then encourage its proper use several times. (14:39, “…earnestly desire to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues.” Paul naturally spoke his native dialect (Tarsus), Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin and maybe another dialect. The Corinthians probably spoke only Greek. As an Apostle, Paul had gifts for signs of confirmation (Heb 2:3-4) and the “marks of an apostle – signs, wonders and miracles…” NIV Note: there is no record of Paul ever speaking in tongues All practice of tongues in the Book of Acts (3 occasions) were all in public, not in any assembly of believers muriori, “innumerable, countless,” the largest number in Greek. Source of English word, “myriad” katecheo, “teach, catechize”—this is what “edifies”
14 14:20-21 Thinking Tongues is important is Childish! 20 Brethren, do not be children in your thinking; yet in evil be infants, but in your thinking be mature. Paul first establishes the purpose of tongues, then shows how to recognize a false tongue, now will give the rules for how to allow the practice tongues, which by themselves are useless. It is the gift of translation that is edifying (14:5), a distinct but complimentary gift (12:10,30) Negative Present Imperative = “Stop being… childish.” Implies that they were acting as children, but must stop it now! “Their loveless immaturity and carnality caused their theological, spiritual and moral problems, including their misuse and counterfeiting of gifts.” MacArthur Jesus’ favorite question, “What do you think...?” Prov 23:7, “For as he thinks within himself, so he is.” NAU People mature by changing their THINKING, “…be transformed by renewing your mind (thinking)” (Rom 12:2) Corinthians were advanced and mature in sin: Most manifestations of flesh were common (Gal 5:19-23), “I cannot speak to you as to spiritual men, but to men of flesh, as infants in Christ” (1 Cor 3:1), “…children, tossed here and there by waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming” (Eph 4:14). Naive, innocent and ignorant with little or no knowledge of things teleios, “complete, full-grown” Translated “perfect” in 1 Cor 13:10. The goal of gifted leaders is to develop “a mature man…” (Eph 4:13) through teaching and “equipping” (4:12)
15 A sign of Judgment: 15 yrs before Isaiah’s prophecy the Assyrians had destroyed Israel because of unbelief and apostasy. The prophet warns Judah of similar judgment. He spoke to them as children “just weaned from milk” using “line on line, a little here, a little there” (28:9-10). Now they would listen to foreign languages as a sign of impending judgment (Ac 2:7-11) – Judgment came 14 years later in 70 AD where over 1 million Jews were slaughtered by Titus. After the destruction of Jerusalem there was no more need of a sign! 14:22 Purpose of Tongues: a SIGN 21 In the Law it is written, "BY MEN OF STRANGE TONGUES AND BY THE LIPS OF STRANGERS I WILL SPEAK TO THIS PEOPLE, AND EVEN SO THEY WILL NOT LISTEN TO ME," says the Lord. 22 So then tongues are for a sign, not to those who believe but to unbelievers; but prophecy is for a sign, not to unbelievers but to those who believe. Free translation of Isa 28: The Jews of Pentecost recognized the fulfillment of their prophecy of a language sign. When driving to a town, the signs say 100 miles, a little later, 50 miles, then 10 miles. Once you arrive there is no more need of a mileage sign, because the objective has been reached. Especially unbelieving Jews who would recognize the significance of the sign of coming judgment, which should motivate a change or repentance Italics indicate it is not in the Greek, but implied by translator; however, it seems unwarranted: Prophecy is not seen as a sign, but a means of edification of believers.
16 14:23 Tongues are Ineffective in Evangelism 23 Therefore if the whole church assembles together and all speak in tongues, and ungifted men or unbelievers enter, will they not say that you are mad? idiotes, common soldier rather than an officer; in the NT, an unlearned, illiterate or unskilled. mainomai, “frenzied rage, beside oneself in anger”, would think it was just another wild and meaningless ritual like paganism, a congregation of lunatics. A hypothetical hyperbole (exaggerated possibility), to illustrate the extreme attitude that the gift of tongues is suppose to be for everyone is ineffective in evangelism (previously seen ineffective in worship). This did not occur in the Jewish context of Pentecost: they understood the sign and the literal languages spoken (16 mentioned in Acts 2:11)
17 14:24-25 Reasons Prophecy is Superior to Tongues 24 But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or an ungifted man enters, he is convicted by all, he is called to account by all; 25 the secrets of his heart are disclosed; and so he will fall on his face and worship God, declaring that God is certainly among you. A contrasting hypothetical hyperbole where everyone is receiving and proclaiming God’s revelations. Three results would occur: 1.elegcho, “to point away from sin to repentance” implying educative discipline. Rebuke is a part of the Jewish idea of brotherly love. It has the sense of “proof” with a view of “convincing” Jesus asked, “Who of you convict me of sin?” (Jn 8:46) Paul, “mightily convinced the Jews … showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ” (Acts 18:26 NET) Sinners are “convicted by the law as transgressors” (James 2:9) 3. “Hidden” things are made phaneros, “visible, evident, well known.” “For nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing concealed that will not be made known and brought to light” (Like 8:17 NET) “And even if I am unskilled in speaking, yet I am certainly not so in knowledge. Indeed, we have made this plain to you in everything in every way” (2 Cor 11:6 NET) Not a clairvoyant experience, but conviction of the Spirit in response to understanding the Word of God 2. anakrino, “examine or judge, enquire into, as a judge holding and investigation, showing someone that he has done something wrong. “These Jews were more open-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they eagerly received the message, examining the scriptures carefully every day to see if these things were so” Acts 17:11 Sounds like 2 Kings 22:10-13 when Hilkiah found the Scriptures and read them before King Josiah. He fell on his face, tore his clothes in an act of sorrow and repentance. Note: It is the understanding of God’s attitude toward sin that the Spirit uses to generate repentance and transformation. Three-fold response to conviction of the Spirit through understanding of the Word: 1.“Falling on his face”, pipto, “prostrate oneself, become inadequate, come to an end” 2.“Worshipping” proskuneo, “bowing down in reverence and obedience.” 3.“Declare”, apaggello, “publicly inform what is done or understood.”
18 14:26 Priority of Meaningful Edification in the church 26 What is the outcome then, brethren? When you assemble, each one has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation. Let all things be done for edification. Paul has laid out the Doctrinal basis for Christian behavior 14:1-25), now will begin the Practical Practice of tongues and other gifts (14:26-40). A reading or singing of one of the OT Psalms probably memorized for the assembly didache, “doctrine” probably a favorite teaching or pet subject that they wanted everyone to believe This is a description (not a command) of the condition in the church at Corinth. They were not interested in serving, learning or edifying. They were seeking self-expression, self- glory while competing for attention and preeminence. apokalupsis, a God-given truth or concept from the gift of Prophecy or Knowledge. glossan, singular, “language”. Though singular, it is presumed to be genuine in this context, since it is a reference to “each one”, that is individuals. Necessarily associated with a translator or interpretation. oikodome, lit. “house building” with the imperative present: “continually, habitually” “Therefore encourage one another, and build up one another..” 1 Th 5:11 They did not ”pursue the things which make for peace and the building up of one another” (Ro 14:19) The one thing for building up others is the revealed Word: “All Scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness 2 Tim 3:16
19 14:27-29 Rules of Order for Church Service 27 If anyone speaks in a tongue, it should be by two or at the most three, and each in turn, and one must interpret; 28 but if there is no interpreter, he must keep silent in the church; and let him speak to himself and to God. 29 Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others pass judgment glossa, sing., “language”, normally refers to counterfeit tongue, but here is singular because subject is singular. Rule #1: Number of persons speaking is limited to 2, or at the most 3 per reunion. Rule #2: Each must speak in turn, never simultaneously Rule #3: One must interpret. In Greek “one” is emphatic indicating a single person is to interpret all tongues. diermeneuo, pres. Imp., “habitually translate.” To show impartiality, the same rules apply to prophecy, with a additional rule. Rule #5: Speakers were to be evaluated by other prophets according to known revelations. diakrino, pres. Imp., “distinguish true and false, discern” continuously or habitually (1 Jn 4:1) Rule #4: No tongue speaker permitted without an interpreter. Since tongues is meaningless without an interpreter, they were forbidden to speak until an interpreter with the gift or knowledge of the language was known to be present.
20 14:30-33 Limitations apply to All Speaking Gifts 30 But if a revelation is made to another who is seated, the first one must keep silent. 31 For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all may be exhorted; 32 and the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets; 33 for God is not a God of confusion but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints 7896 Rule #6: If someone received a revelation as a prophet (or tongues speaker?) he was given preference to speak first. If a new “part” of the revelation of God’s Word or Will was disclosed it was so important that everything took second place to its hearing. Rule #7: The priority of order is to assure learning and exhorting can take place: the essence of edification manthano, subj. pres., “appraised of, increase in knowledge” parakaleo, subj.pres., “encouraged, appealed to, motivated, pleaded with, urged to specific action, pleaded with” Rule #8: There is to be no uncontrolled speakers or manifestations. hupotasso, indicative pres. pass. “be obedient to, submissive to, under authority of…” There is no such thing as “out-of-mind” experience. Fruit of Spirit is “self-control”, not ecstatic bizarre or trancelike experience as the pagans Rule #9: All that comes from God produces peace in stead of confusion akatastasia, “disorder, disturbances, mob frenzy.” Where there is frenzy, self-glorying, disharmony, chaos, discord, the Spirit is not in control, but the flesh NIV James 3:14 But if you harbor bitter envy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast about it or deny the truth. 15 Such "wisdom" does not come down from heaven but is earthly, unspiritual, of the devil. 16 For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. 17 But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere. 18 Peacemakers who sow in peace raise a harvest of righteousness. The Last part of v. 33, probably belongs to v. 34. It does not make sense in v. 33, but does in vs. 34.
21 14:34-36 Limitation on Women 34 The women are to keep silent in the churches; for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject themselves, just as the Law also says. 35 If they desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper for a woman to speak in church. 36 Was it from you that the word of God first went forth? Or has it come to you only? 10 Rule #10: Women are not to speak (in tongues or prophecies or in evaluating prophets) in the churches sigao, pres.imp., “be concealed, hold one’s peace continually.” Stronger than hesychia in 1 Ti 2:11-12 “woman should learn in quietness…” which means “quietness, absence of disorder.” hupotasso, imp. pres. passive, “place yourself under the authority of another” A description of a married woman. This verb expresses a subordination, (but not inferior) relationship. Paul permitted the participation of other women who were properly adorned (1 Cor 11:2-16) Husbands are to respect the intellectual development of their wives and to progressively train them privately. He wants them to stop interrupting the public teachings gynaikes, “women” in general (both single and married), distinguished only by the context. This context appears to indicate “married women”: “…ask their own husbands…” (v.35), but all the passages dealing with women in the church, appear to be “women” in general Women could not speak in the synagogues. As a result of the fall the original design of submissive partnership was distorted. Gen 3:16 NET, “To the woman he said, I will greatly increase your labor pains; with pain you will give birth to children. You will want to control your husband, but he will dominate you.” epitrepetai, pres.pass., “to turn to, to entrust, give permission to.” This is the rule in all the churches (v. 33) 1 Tim 2:12, “I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority (authenteo, “govern, domineer”) over a man; she must be silent” (hesuchia, “quiet, saying very little”). aischros, “disgraceful, sordid, shameful,” socially unacceptable. Opposite of kalos, “good, beautiful”. Was this just applied to “uncovered” women who would bring dishonor to her husband when they prayed or prophesied (11:5)? Or when they evaluated a prophet (14:29)? Or if they were curious, they should not ask questions in the meetings (v. 35)? Or all of the above, restraining from any subtle attempt to be authoritative over the leadership in the assembly? Driving his point home with sarcasm, Paul seeks to motivate submission to the Word: No believer has the right to overrule, ignore, alter or disobey the revealed Word. Paul is asking if the women have taken the place of the Spirit or if they could make up a revelation as if from God. laleo, pres., “to preach, proclaim, address, or tell a message”
22 14:37 Sign of a Genuine Prophet or a Spirit-filled person 37 If anyone thinks he is a prophet or spiritual, let him recognize that the things which I write to you are the Lord's commandment. 38 But if anyone does not recognize this, he is not recognized. dokeo, pres., “consider, imagine, have a reputation.” The contrast in context is between the gifts of prophecy and tongues; thus, a parallel appears between tongues and “spiritual”, pneumatikos, “one who is spiritual” as opposed to one who is carnal. 1Cor 8:3, “But if someone loves God, he is know by God” 1 John 4:6, “We are from God; the person who knows God listens to us, but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of deceit.” Matt 7:22, “On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophecy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do many powerful deeds?” Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!” The authority of an apostle is identical to that of our Lord! They had received the revelation from the Lord and wrote it down under inspiration, thus their writings became infallible! 1 Thess 2:13, NAS “For this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God, which also performs its work in you who believe.” epiginosko, “know accurately or well” with the prepositional prefix epi- = “really know” agnoeo, pres. act., “to be ignorant of, disregard” However you treat the Apostle’s writings, you will be treated equally! By Paul, the churches, and God?
23 14:39-40 Speaking the Revealed Truth is Priority 39 Therefore, my brethren, desire earnestly to prophesy, and do not forbid to speak in tongues. 40 But all things must be done properly and in a fitting and orderly way. zeloo, pres.imp.plural, “be jealous for, be deeply concerned about, make important.” In the congregation prophecy should have been the most respected and revered gift koluo, negative pres. act. imperative, “prevent, keep back, hinder.” Naturally this is assuming that the Ten Rules of Spiritual Gifts were practiced; otherwise, they were commanded to keep silent. taxsis, “arrangement for temple service, sequence, fixed succession, well- regulated conduct.” The order should not be interrupted by spontaneous outbursts euschemonos, “orderly behavior, proper external appearance, “In this way you will live a decent life before outsiders and not be in need” 1 Thes 4:12.