Presentation on theme: "Non destructive analyses of archaeological metal artefacts & the stories in the Bible: could they meet? Special opening lecture for ISRANDT & ASNT/ISRAEL."— Presentation transcript:
Non destructive analyses of archaeological metal artefacts & the stories in the Bible: could they meet? Special opening lecture for ISRANDT & ASNT/ISRAEL Sariel Shalev University of Haifa
This lecture is dedicated with love and gratitude to Gabi Shoef and his ‘highly expensive’ non destructive analyses of archaeological metal artefacts some 22 years ago. Sariel Shalev University of Haifa
Sariel Shalev With contributions of: Elad Caspi Naama Yahalom Sana Shilstein Y. Levy & M. Pfilstoker Ayelt Gilboa & Ilan Sharon Rahel Ben-Dov & A. Biran Amihi Mazar (ISF Research Grant)... From the time of the Patriarch until the time of struggle between the Israelites and the Philistines in Canaan (MBI – IA1: BCE)
The socio-political structure of Canaan in the MBA & ND Analysis Preliminary neutron diffraction study of two fenestrated axes from the ‘Enot Shuni’ Bronze Age cemetery (Israel) El’ad Caspi, Hanania Ettedgui, Oleg Rivin, Martin Peilsto¨cker, Beni Breitman, Izhak Hershko, Sana Shilstein, Sariel Shalev
The neutron diffraction & radiography of the axes from Shuni
So, could it be the ‘Sheppard's Chief’ symbol of status? ‘‘Abram had become very wealthy in livestock and in silver and gold (Genesis 13: 2). Now Lot, who was moving about with Abram, also had flocks and herds and tents. (Genesis 13: 5). And quarrelling arose between Abram’s herdsmen and the herdsmen of Lot. The Canaanites and Perizzites were also living in the land at that time.’’ (Genesis 13: 7).
If only life could be so simple: The similar finds from Byblos
Did the Patriarchs go from Canaan down to Egypt? Hnum Hotep tomb, Beni Hassan, Semites coming to Egypt
What could we add to the known material and metallurgy? Similar metals were found in Israel and in Egypt and were analyzed recently. On the basis of “old” and “new” data we could now check the metal composition typical to each of the metal weapons typical to this period.
How the new metallurgical data could affect the chronology? Axes from Tell el- Dab’a, Egypt. Identical axes from Rishon LeZion, Israel Tin Bronze (16%-5% Sn) with no arsenic (+1TED)
Compositional characterization of the shafthole axes Flat shafthole axes were similarly made of: Arsenical copper (3.5%-4.3% As) with no tin Arsenical copper (3.5%-4.3% As) with no tin Tin bronze (12%-5% Sn) with less then 0.5% arsenic. Tin bronze (12%-5% Sn) with less then 0.5% arsenic. (+3TED) Lead in much lower quantities then in the above (5%-1% Pb) was detected in both alloying types. Lead in much lower quantities then in the above (5%-1% Pb) was detected in both alloying types. (+1TED) Rounded shafthole axes were also made of: Arsenical copper (1.6%-3.4% As) with no tin. Arsenical copper (1.6%-3.4% As) with no tin (+4TED). All the tin bronzes have similar amount of tin (6.5%-6.8% Sn),All the tin bronzes have similar amount of tin (6.5%-6.8% Sn), (+3TED) (2TED only Fe, As 0.5 or n.d.; 1TED only Cu) Rumeida KV-98 19e x 100 R. LeZion
If the above would remain the only archaeological data … Axe - Kabri Belt – Fara’a Dagger – Rishon Le Zion Spear - Safed warrior figurine from Biblos with axe, spear and dagger Baghouz warrior on his death bed Egyptian hieroglyphs for dead enemy
The Middle Bronze Age metal artifacts: what do we already know? Hundreds of copper- base objects were unearthed, mainly in burials, all over the Levant in the last 150 years of archaeology. In the Middle Bronze Age (end of 3rd – middle of 2nd Millennium B.C) the development of more complex weapons (longer daggers, swords, complex battle axes etc.) was made possible by alloying the copper initially with arsenic (As) and later tin (Sn) to produce arsenical copper and tin bronze. Lead (Pb) begin to play a greater role as a major alloy as well.
…and how non destructive analyses could give us a better insight? ND of MBII axes in ISIS, UK. 2008
The Biblical description: Non Destructive Analysis & The “Philistine Monopoly” on Metal Production RSV 1Sa 13:19 Now there was no smith to be found throughout all the land of Israel; for the Philistines said, "Lest the Hebrews make themselves swords or spears"; 20 but every one of the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen his plowshare, his mattock, his axe, or his sickle; 21 and the charge was a pim for the plowshares and for the mattocks, and a third of a shekel for sharpening the axes and for setting the goads. 22 So on the day of the battle there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people with Saul and Jonathan; but Saul and Jonathan his son had them.
Tel Dor Tel Dan Tel Gerisa Tel Qasile Distribution of Early Iron Age Metallurgical Activities The archaeological data Circa 700 metal finds – Cu+Sn mainly Circa 700 metal finds – Cu+Sn mainly Small local production, mainly Small local production, mainly Philistines sites. Simple products + some imports & Heirlooms Simple products + some imports & Heirlooms +120 analyses +120 analyses by ICP, WDS, XRF. by ICP, WDS, XRF. (Shalev, Yahalom, Segal) (Shalev, Yahalom, Segal) 48 LIA (Yahalom 48 LIA (Yahalom & Segal) & Segal) 13 sites, mainly in Philistian territory (9) : 13 sites, mainly in Philistian territory (9) : Dan, Beth Shean, Megiddo, Yoqneam, Dor, Gerisa, Qasile, Aphek, Beth Shemesh Dan, Beth Shean, Megiddo, Yoqneam, Dor, Gerisa, Qasile, Aphek, Beth Shemesh
Metal Production Area in Early Iron Age Tel Dan R. Ben-Dov Area B
Bronze Production Remains from Early Iron Age Tel Dan
Crucible-Slag from the IA-I Bronze Production area at Tel Dan L.7060 Cu+1.4/4.7%Sn L.7126 Cu+0.6/6.8%Sn L.7119 Cu+1.7/1.9%Sn L.71 and 15 S.Shalev analyses (WDS + AAS) of crucible slags & prills, 18 analyses of objects & fragments.
Microstructure of an IA-I Crucible-Slag from Tel Dan U20 X 400 Bronze Prills
Tel Dor: View from its Iron Age Southern Harbor Area G Harbor Garstang J ; Stern E So – is it a typical Philistine metal production as described in the Bible?
Bronze Production Remains & Objects from Are G at Tel Dor Slag B94482 Slags Ring pieces Metal prills Arrowhead Needle Pin Scrap Metal piece B94466 Slag Scrap Awl metal remains: 116 Prills, 54 chunks, slag, 8 crucible frags. 19 objects & fragments.
Crucible for Bronze Melting - Early Iron Age Tel-Gerisa
How could non destructive XRF find the ‘missing link’ in the field? Iron Age II Late Bronze Age Iron Age I Eastern Balk of Are G at Tel Dor
Early Iron Age Fire-Pit Section in Are G Balk at Tel Dor F17 F18 F16 Ca Fe Cu Sr XRF Analysis of Gray Ash
Ca Fe Cu Sr XRF Analysis of white Calcite from the IA-I Fire-Pit from Tel Dor Ca Fe CuSr XRF Analysis of Burnt Ground from the IA-I Fire-Pit from Tel Dor CaCa Fe Sr XRF Analysis of Ash from the IA-I Courtyard near the Fire-Pit
The Philistine’s Metal Arms Superiority & Non Destructive XRF Analysis RSV 1Sa 17:45 Then David said to the Philistine, "You come to me with a sword and with a spear and with a javelin; but I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.
Beth Dagan Jaffa Mediterranean Sea
“A Shardanian weapon also used by the Philistines, discovered at the Biblical site of Beth-Dagon, near Jaffa” Purchased in 1910 by the British Museum Hall 1914 Hall 1928 Yadin 1963 Barnet 1966 etc. Aharoni 1977 B.M L.1065 W.84 Th.14 Rivets 12 The “Philistine” Sword from the British Museum Shalev 1988
The Marine Battle of Ra’ameses III against the Sea People Medinet Habu Temple - Egypt, circa 1180 BC
EB-MB Sword probably from Ashkelon, now in Rockefeller Museum L.578 W.48 Th.14 Rivets 7 Cu+6%As
EB-MB (EB IV; IB) Weapons circa 2100BC Cu %As & up to 28.5%As on surface
So – what do we know now better about IA-I Metallurgy? Iron or Bronze? Out of more than 700 metal remains from the beginning of the Iron Age in the Land of the Bible - less than 10 are made of Iron and all others are of copper based, mainly of bronze. Metal production: All production remains are of bronze small scale open air ‘Cottage Industry’ making simple objects, by using mainly scrap metal and melting it inside a clay crucible in a campfire using skin bellow with clay tuyre. Is the metallurgical evidence contradict or support the Biblical text? As for the state of evidence today, the location of the production sites in conjunction with the Philistines sites and the local small village industry mainly for the production of simple tools – fits well with the Biblical descriptions. But, the metallurgical evidence, as opposed to the historical reconstruction based upon the Biblical text, show very clearly that only bronze production and no iron industry is currently evident to be practiced during the beginning of the Iron Age in Palestine.