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Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Mary Ellen Guffey Copyright © 2008 Chapter 13 Proposals and Formal Reports.

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Presentation on theme: "Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Mary Ellen Guffey Copyright © 2008 Chapter 13 Proposals and Formal Reports."— Presentation transcript:

1 Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Mary Ellen Guffey Copyright © 2008 Chapter 13 Proposals and Formal Reports

2 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 2 Writing Proposals and Formal Reports Proposals Formal Reports Business Plans Report Components

3 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 3 Preparing Proposals Introduction  Explain why the proposal is being made.  Develop a persuasive “hook.” Suggest excellent results, low cost, or exclusive resources. Identify a problem or name a key issue or benefit.

4 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 4 © Tom Grill / Corbis Preparing Proposals  Discuss the proposal’s significance, goals, or purposes.  For unsolicited proposals, describe an existing problem.  For solicited proposals, show that you fully understand the problem and its ramifications. Background, problem

5 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 5 Preparing Proposals Proposal, plan  Present your plan for solving the problem.  Describe implementation and evaluation.  Outline a schedule showing dates.

6 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 6 Preparing Proposals Staffing  Explain the specific credentials and expertise of the key personnel for the project.  Show how your support staff and resources are superior to the competition.

7 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 7 Preparing Proposals Budget  Itemize costs carefully. Proposals are contracts.  Present a deadline for the bid figures.

8 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 8 Preparing Proposals Authorization Ask for approval. Make it easy to reply. © John Foxx / Stockbyte / Getty Images

9 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 9 Components of Formal and Informal Proposals Budget Authorization Appendix Generally appear in both formal and informal proposals: Staffing Optional in informal proposals: Schedule Background, problem, purpose Introduction List of figures Table of contents Title Page Abstract or summary Letter of transmittal Copy of RFP (optional)

10 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 10 Preparing an Effective Business Plan Letter of transmittal or executive summary  Explain your reasons for writing.  Provide contact information for all principals.  Describe your business concisely.  Introduce parts of your plan.  Ask for support. Table of contents  List topics and page numbers

11 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 11 Company description  Identify business form (proprietorship, partnership, corporation?)  Specify business type (merchandising, service?)  For existing businesses, explain founding, growth, sales, profit. Preparing an Effective Business Plan

12 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 12 Product/service description  Explain what you are providing and how it will benefit customers.  Describe why your idea is better than existing products or services. Preparing an Effective Business Plan

13 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 13 Market analysis  Discuss market characteristics, trends, and projected growth.  Describe customer behavior, complementary products and services, and barriers to entry.  Identify your customers and how you will attract, hold, and increase your market share.  Specify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors. Preparing an Effective Business Plan

14 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 14  Emphasize experienced and well-trained staff and advisors.  Explain how you will run your business: location, equipment, personnel, and management. Operations and management Preparing an Effective Business Plan

15 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 15 Financial analysis  Outline a realistic start-up budget.  Present an operating budget that projects costs.  Explain how much money you have and will need. Appendixes  Provide extras such as managers’ résumés, promotional materials, and product photos. Preparing an Effective Business Plan

16 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 16 Preparing Formal Reports Analyze the report problem and purpose. Develop a problem question (Are customers satisfied with our service?) and a purpose statement. (The purpose of this report is to investigate customer satisfaction and to recommend areas for improvement. )

17 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 17 Anticipate the audience and issues. Preparing Formal Reports Consider primary and secondary audiences. What do they already know? What do they need to know? Divide the major problem into subproblems for investigation

18 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 18 Prepare a work plan. Preparing Formal Reports Include problem and purpose statements. Describe sources and methods of collecting data. Prepare a project outline and work schedule.

19 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 19 Collect data. Preparing Formal Reports Search secondary sources. Gather primary data.

20 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 20 Document data sources. Preparing Formal Reports Prepare note cards or printouts citing all references (author, date, sources, page, and quotation). Use one documentation format consistently.

21 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 21 Interpret and organize the data. Preparing Formal Reports Arrange the collected data in tables, grids, or outlines to help you visualize relationships and interpret meanings. Organize the data into an outline.

22 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 22 Prepare graphics. Preparing Formal Reports Make tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations—but only if they serve a function. Use graphics to clarify, condense, simplify, or emphasize your data.

23 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 23 Compose the first draft. Preparing Formal Reports Write the first draft knowing that you will later revise. Use appropriate headings as well as transitional expressions to guide the reader.

24 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 24 Revise and proofread. Preparing Formal Reports Revise to eliminate wordiness, ambiguity, and redundancy. Look for ways to improve readability, such as bulleted or numbered lists. Proofread three times for (1) word and content meaning, (2) grammar and mechanics, and (3) formatting.

25 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 25 Evaluate the product. Preparing Formal Reports Will this report achieve its purpose? Encourage feedback so that you can improve future reports.

26 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 26 Formal Report Components Title page Balance the following lines:  Name of the report in all caps  Receiver’s name, title, and organization  Author’s name, title, and organization  Date submitted

27 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 27 Letter or memo of transmittal  Announce topic and explain who authorized it.  Briefly describe the project and preview the conclusions—if the reader is supportive.  Close by expressing appreciation for the assignment, suggesting follow-up actions, acknowledging the help of others, and offering to answer questions. Formal Report Components

28 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 28 Table of contents  Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the report.  Connect page numbers and headings with dots. List of illustrations  Include a list of tables, illustrations, or figures showing the title of each and its page number.  Place on the same page with contents if possible. Formal Report Components

29 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 29 Executive summary or abstract  Summarize the report purpose, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.  Gauge the length of the summary by the length of the report and by the organization’s practices. Formal Report Components

30 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 30 Introduction  Explain the problem motivating the report.  Describe the problem’s background and significance.  Clarify the scope and limitations of the report.  Consider reviewing relevant literature.  Consider describing data sources, methods, and key terms.  Close by previewing the report’s organization. Formal Report Components

31 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 31 Formal Report Components Body  Discuss, analyze, and interpret the research findings or proposed solution to the problem.  Arrange the findings in logical segments that follow your outline.  Use clear, descriptive headings.

32 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 32 Formal Report Components Conclusions and recommendations  Explain what the findings mean in relation to the problem.  Make enumerated recommendations, if requested.  Suggest actions for solving the problem.

33 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 33 Formal Report Components Appendix  Include items of interest to some readers, such as data-gathering tools like questionnaires. References and bibliography  If footnotes are not provided, list all references in “Works Cited” or “References.”  Optionally, include a bibliography showing all the works cited (and perhaps consulted) arranged alphabetically.

34 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 34 Components in Formal and Informal Reports Letter of transmittal Table of contents List of figures Executive summary Introduction Body Conclusions Recommendations Appendix Bibliography Title page Cover Generally appear in both formal and informal reports: Optional in informal reports:

35 End Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Ch. 13, Slide 35


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