Presentation on theme: "HAND by Loredana Mastropasqua Faculty of Political Science a.y. 2005-2006."— Presentation transcript:
HAND by Loredana Mastropasqua Faculty of Political Science a.y. 2005-2006
I’ve chosen to investigate the behaviour of the word HAND. It is a word of common use that changes meaning according to the context in which it is inserted. For definition, we intend the hand as that organ prehensile and tactile placed to the extremity of the arms of the man.
After the face, the hands are the most expressive part of the human body; they can call, exhort, threaten, offer, ask, pray, deny, number, caress, applaud…. For such expressiveness they become an important part of any artistic representation to emphasize the work or to delineate a small detail that could become some work distinctive. It is as it happened for the work of Michelangelo “La creazione di Adamo” present in “Cappella Sistina” in Roma. Few people remember the image of the whole work, but all remember the artistic detail of the hands of Adamo and God that are grazing???. The contact among the fingers through which it transmits the puff of life becomes the focal point of the work.
Also in historical circle the hands have assumed their importance, becoming distinctive of a determined party, as for example the fascist salute and the communist symbol.
Working with the following corpora: - EIFECO 2003 - COSTCO 2004 - ECCO 2005 - BBB 2006 - SPEICO 2006 and with the help of internet and the personal knowledge of the Italian language I have found a clear difference in the translation of the word MANO from Italian into English.
In fact, not only does it have different meanings according to the context in which it is inserted but also according to the use of the word in the singular or in the plural. The word HAND, in the singular, is present in the corpora 672 times but never with the meaning of limb. Instead, the word HANDS, in its plural form is present in the corpora 308 times. For 307 times it has the meaning of limb, with one exception " hands-on " in which it has the value of “pratica”; e.g.: provides a close formal and cultural analysis of a classical film sequence – a detailed, hands-on demonstration of practical film criticism. provides a close formal and cultural analysis of a classical film sequence – a detailed, hands-on demonstration of practical film criticism.
The word HAND in its singular form is embedded in several expressions: - the carrying out of an action; - the direct share: “dare una mano a qualcuno” translated into “to lend a hand to someone”, figurative expression that points out to lend help to someone. There is a whole section of “phraseology” related to the term that preserves, through different meanings, a more or less accented ritual imprint - say hello or seal a pact: “darsi la mano” translated in "to shake hands"; e.g. - I mean, people -- it's part of the job of the President to shake hands and -- with people and smile. (Laughter.) - ask a girl in bride: “chiedere la mano di una fanciulla” translated in “to ask for a lady’s hand”; To guarantee the honesty and the abilities of a person or the quality or truth of a thing: “ mettere la mano sul fuoco” translated in “to swear on it!"; - have great consideration of someone: “portare qualcuno su un palmo di mano” translated in “to praise someone to the skies."
Used in its plural form, in correspondence with the functions the term enters relative ??? expressions: - e.g. “avere le mani bucate” traslated in “ to be a spendthrift”, figurative expression that points out to the being spender; - to the imposed power or immediately as motive for submission or protection: “mettersi nelle mani di qualcuno” translated in “to put oneself in the hands of someone”; e.g. - So we should look at expanding direct payments, putting money in the hands of carers and those in need of care to provide for themselves. It preserves instead, through meanings different, a ritual more or less accented meaning: - For anger or spite: “Giú le mani!” translated in “Hands off!”; “Mani in alto!” translated in “Hands up!”; e.g. - In other words, how many of you have a stock portfolio. Nearly 90 percent held their hands up. When you cut taxes on capital gains, and you cut taxes on dividends, you're helping the line workers in the automobile plant; - To decline every responsibility: “Lavarsi le mani di qualcosa” translated in “to wash one’s hands of something”.
We deduce therefore that the term translating MANO, in its singular form, from English into Italian, rarely refers to the limb, but it is inserted in a cliché, such as: - “To go hand in hand with” what means “andare al passo, di pari passo”; - “On the other hand” meaning “d’altra parte, però”; e.g. Now the truth of the matter is we have not had referendums on these types of treaty before, that is absolutely right, although on the other hand, as my critics have been pointing out, for several months this government has actually been more open to consulting people by way of referendum than I think any government before it. Now the truth of the matter is we have not had referendums on these types of treaty before, that is absolutely right, although on the other hand, as my critics have been pointing out, for several months this government has actually been more open to consulting people by way of referendum than I think any government before it. “On the one hand” meaning “da un lato, per un verso”; e.g. “On the one hand” meaning “da un lato, per un verso”; e.g. A lot of Lithuanian Americans here, by the way, who, on the one hand, are really happy the United States defeated Nazism, on the other hand saw their homeland taken over by a repressive, communist regime. A lot of Lithuanian Americans here, by the way, who, on the one hand, are really happy the United States defeated Nazism, on the other hand saw their homeland taken over by a repressive, communist regime.
Conversely, the word MANI, in its plural form, from English into Italian, will have the value proper of limb even if in figurative way: - “Out of hands of” meaning “non più nelle mani di”; - “To be in the hands of” meaning “essere nelle mani di”; e.g. - As the chart shows, only two-thirds of the big European firms included in the FTSE Eurofirst 300 index operate a rule of one share, one vote. In the other third of firms, power tends to be concentrated in the hands of a minority of big shareholders who control a majority of the voting rights.
Today we more and more often hear of: “essere in mano ai terroristi” translated as “to be in the hands of the terrorists“, to point out the power acquired by these and of “la mano di Al-quaeda” translated in “the hand of Al-quaeda”, to point out the responsibility of some gestures set-up by Al-quaeda. We are losing the original meaning of the word MANO, that should point out to protection, justice, to pass to a more and more hard meaning, done of responsibility that we would like not to attribute to anybody… The simple handshake points out accord, collaboration, I hope that soon can return to be symbol of peace.