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CEL 899 Term Paper Report on “A RISK ASSESSSMENT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL A FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE” Under the Guidance of DR. ARUN KUMAR Asstt. Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "CEL 899 Term Paper Report on “A RISK ASSESSSMENT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL A FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE” Under the Guidance of DR. ARUN KUMAR Asstt. Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 CEL 899 Term Paper Report on “A RISK ASSESSSMENT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL A FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE” Under the Guidance of DR. ARUN KUMAR Asstt. Professor IIT Delhi Submitted by Rupali Sarmah (2013CEU2176) Ralceme S (2013CEV2192) Purbashree Sarmah (2014CEV2092) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI

2 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk on human health due to the presence of Bisphenol A in landfill leachate. SCOPE This study includes only residential population, i.e. occupational population was not taken into consideration. Also subpopulations like pregnant women and senior citizen are not taken into consideration. Oral and dermal routes of exposure were considered while inhalation was not considered. Fig 1: Chemical structure of BPA

3 METHODOLOGY BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. When solid wastes consisting of materials stated above are disposed of at landfill sites, leaching may occur causing Bisphenol A from these wastes to reach ground water and surface water. BPA exposure in adults may cause thyroid hormone problem, blunted immune function, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, altered liver function, obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, altered sex hormone concentrations and gene expression. The associations between early BPA exposure and altered behaviour and disrupted neurodevelopment in children, as well as increased probability of childhood wheeze and asthma is very strong.

4 Again BPA is assumed to be absorbed by vegetables from soil and concentrations of the same are taken from literature as Minimum conc. = 9 ng/g= 9x10 -3 mg/g Maximum conc. = 48 ng/g= 48x10 -3 mg/g Average conc. = 25 ng/g= 25x10 -3 mg/g,

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6 RESULT AND DISCUSSION Based on this study, maximum concentration of BPA was found to be in vegetables grown near the landfill sites. The highest values of ADD are found to be mg/kg/Day in adults and0.206 mg/kg/Day in children. The study shows that both adults and children consuming vegetables are at health risk due to BPA. Based on sensitivity analysis children with body weight less than 28 kg are found to be more vulnerable to BPA exposure. Sensitivity analysis shows that body weight is the variable that has to be considered first. Also the fault tree analysis gives a probability of 0.263%, for human beings being exposed to BisphenolA. Even though this study gives higher risk due to vegetable consumption, the risk due to ground water contamination is also found to be high and cannot be neglected.

7 RISK MANAGEMENT: Regulations should be made for the materials dumped in landfill near residential area and near surface water source. Monitor the working of landfill on a regular basis. Make sure that the liner and the cover is working properly. RISK COMMUNICATION: The people residing near the landfill areas should be informed about the risk and the different pathways through which they may get exposed to the contaminant.

8 REFERENCES Asakura, H., Matsuto T., Tanaka, N., 2004, “Behavior of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate from MSW landfill sites in Japan”, Waste Management 24 (2004) 613–622. Beronius, A.,Ruden, C., Hakansson, H., Hanberg, A., 2009, “Risk to all or none? A comparative analysis of controversies in the health risk assessment of Bisphenol A”, Reproductive Toxicology 29 (2010) 132–146. Dekant, W., Volkel. W., 2008, “Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures”, Toxicol ApplPharm;228:114–34. Ekstrom. E., 2010, “BisphenolA in the Environment”, Environmental Management 101, Fall. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007, “Code of Practice for Environmental Risk Assessment for Unregulated Waste Disposal Sites”, Published by the Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland. ISBN Fromme, H., Keuchler, T., Otto, T., Pilz, K., Meuller, J., Wenzel, A., 2002, Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water Res. 36, 1429–1438. Kang, J. H., Kondo, F., Katayama, Y., 2006, “Human exposure to bisphenol A”, Toxicology 226 (2006) 79–89. Lapworth, D., Stuart, M., Hart, A., Crane, E., and Baran, N., 2011, “Emerging contaminants in groundwater”, British Geological Survey, National Environment Research Council. Lee, G. F., and Jones, A. L., 2006, ” Flawed Technology of Subtitle D Landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste”, E. El Macero Drive, El Macero, CA Mavropoulos. A., and Kaliampakos. D.,2002, “Risk Assessment as an engineering tool in landfills”, National Technical University of Athens, Greece. Olea, N., Pulgar, R., Perez, P., Serrano, F.O.,Rivas, A., Fertrell, A.N., Pedraza, V., Soto, A.M., Sonnenschein, C., 1996, “Estrogenicity of resin-based composites and sealants used in dentistry”. Environ. Health Perspect. 104, 298–305.

9 Pivato, A., 2010, “Landfill Liner Failure: An Open Question for Landfill Risk Analysis”, Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, Rochester, J.R., 2013, “Bisphenol A and human health: A review of the literature”, Reproductive Toxicology 42 (2013) 132– 155. Sakamoto, H., Souta, I., Fukui, H., 2000, “Bisphenol A in leachates from solid waste landfill sites “, Proceedings of the 11 th Annual Conference of the Japan Society of the Waste Management Experts, pp 1098–1100. Staples, C. A., Dorn, P. B., Klecka, G. M., O’Block, S. T., Harris, L. R., 1998, “A review of the environmental fate effects and exposures of bisphenol A”, Chemosphere 36:2149–2173. Teeguarden,J.G.and Drury, S.H., 2013, “A systematic review of Bisphenol A ‘‘low dose’’ studies in the context of human exposure: A case for establishing standards for reporting ‘‘low-dose’’ effects of chemicals”, Food and Chemical Toxicology 62 (2013) 935–948. Urase, T., Miyashita, K., 2003, “Factors affecting the concentration of bisphenol A in leachates from solid waste disposal sites and its fate in treatment processes”, J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2003) 5:77–82. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010, “Bisphenol A Action Plan”, CASRN Virmani, S.M., Sivakumar, M.V.K. and Reddy, S.J., 1982, “Rainfall Probability Estimates for Selected Locations of Semi-Arid India”, RESEARCH BULLETIN NO.1 2nd Edition –Enlarged, ICRISAT, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropic. Yamamoto, T., Yasuhara, A., Shiraishi, H., Nakasugi, O., 2001, “Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates”, Chemosphere 42, 415–418. Yasuhara, A., Shiraishi, H., Nishikawa, M., Yamamoto, T., Nakasugi, O., Okumura, T., Kenmotsu, K., Fukui, H., Nagase, M., Kawagoshi, Y., 1999, “Organic components in leachates from hazardous waste disposal sites”, Waste Manage. Res. 17, 186–197. Zafar, M.and Alappat, B.J., 2004, “Landfill Surface Runoff and Its Effect on Water Quality on River Yamuna”, Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A—Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering Vol. A39, No. 2, pp. 375–384.


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