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Judicial Branch. FEDERAL COURTS Laws and Jurisdiction.

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Presentation on theme: "Judicial Branch. FEDERAL COURTS Laws and Jurisdiction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Judicial Branch

2 FEDERAL COURTS Laws and Jurisdiction

3 Origin of law Case law: Court decisions that inform judicial ruling Constitution: outline the structure of the American government (or state) Statutes: laws made by the national or state government

4 Jurisdiction The authority to hear certain cases is called jurisdiction of the court. – Concurrent jurisdiction is when both federal and state courts have jurisdiction. – Appellate Jurisdiction: The power to review cases already decided in lower court – Limited Jurisdiction: The power to hear only certain kinds of cases (tax cases)

5 Types of Courts Federal (Supreme Court & inferior federal courts) – established by Congress. States – Each state has it’s own courts system whose power comes from state constitution and laws.

6 Federal Courts

7 The Federal Courts Three layers of authority in the federal court system: 1.The Supreme Court 2.Thirteen Courts of Appeals and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. 3.U.S. District Courts and Specialized Federal Courts

8 District Courts 94 courts Lowest level of the federal judicial system Trial courts for both criminal/civil federal cases District Courts has original jurisdiction to hear cases involving – Constitutional law – Cases Involving citizens of different states Federal Court System

9 District Courts

10 Appeals If a person who loses a case in a trial court wishes to appeal a decision, they may take the case to a court with appellate jurisdiction. Meaning a party may appeal a case from a district court to a court of appeals Federal Court System

11 Court of Appeals 13 US Courts of Appeals Each covers a circuit-a geographic area containing several district courts DOES NOT HOLD TRIALS The Appeals court reviews the details of the case. DOES NOT HOLD TRIALS! If an mistake was found the case will be send back to the district court for a new trial

12 District Courts Court of Appeals

13 Appeals Those who are unhappy with the verdict from the court of appeals, may appeal to the Supreme Court

14 Supreme Court Is the highest court in the land Receives thousands of appeals every year but only hears a small percentage of them Federal Court System

15 District Courts Court of Appeals Supreme Court

16 Federal Court Jurisdiction The Constitution gave federal courts jurisdiction in cases that involve United States laws, treaties with foreign nations. Federal Courts System

17 Federal Courts Jurisdiction Cont. 1.Ambassadors and other representatives of foreign governments 2.Two or more states government 3.United States government or one of it offices or agencies 4.Citizens who are resident of different states 5.Citizens who are residents of the same state but claim land under grants of different states Federal Courts System

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19 District Courts Court of Appeals Supreme Court Federal Courts System

20 Special Federal Courts Congress has created a series of courts referred to as legislative Courts. Legislative courts help Congress exercise its power. – U.S. Court of federal Claims – U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces – U.S. Tax Court – Territorial Courts – US Court of Military Appeals – Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

21 District Courts Court of Appeals Supreme Court

22 Special Federal Courts U.S. of Federal Claims Court U.S. Court of International Trade U.S. Tax Court U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces Federal Courts System

23 The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit Court of appeals for the federal circuit National jurisdiction over certain cases, such as those in which the U.S. government is a defendant Federal Courts System

24 FEDERAL JUDGES Selection and Qualification

25 Qualifications No specific requirements in the constitution Most have prior experience ( lower or state courts) Federal Courts System

26 Selection of Federal Judges All federal judges are appointed by the president and approved by the senate. – Senatorial courtesy -allows senators from the president party to have a say in the appointment of judges in their state – Hold position for life (must be in good standing) Federal Courts System

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