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Chapter 12. The Term Structure of Interest Rates The Yield Curve Spot and forward rates Theories of the Term Structure The Yield Curve Spot and forward rates Theories of the Term Structure

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Term structure bonds with the same characteristics, but different maturities focus on Treasury yields same default risk, tax treatment similar liquidity many choices of maturity bonds with the same characteristics, but different maturities focus on Treasury yields same default risk, tax treatment similar liquidity many choices of maturity

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Treasury securities Tbills: 4, 13, 26, and 52 weeks zero coupon Tnotes: 2, 5, and 10 years Tbonds: 30 years (not since 2001) Tnotes and Tbonds are coupon Tbills: 4, 13, 26, and 52 weeks zero coupon Tnotes: 2, 5, and 10 years Tbonds: 30 years (not since 2001) Tnotes and Tbonds are coupon

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Treasury yields over time

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relationship between yield & maturity is NOT constant sometimes short-term yields are highest, most of the time long-term yields are highest relationship between yield & maturity is NOT constant sometimes short-term yields are highest, most of the time long-term yields are highest

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I. The Yield Curve plot of maturity vs. yield slope of curve indicates relationship between maturity and yield the living yield curve plot of maturity vs. yield slope of curve indicates relationship between maturity and yield the living yield curve

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upward sloping yields rise w/ maturity (common) July 1992, currently yields rise w/ maturity (common) July 1992, currently maturity yield

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downward sloping (inverted) yield falls w/ maturity (rare) April 1980 yield falls w/ maturity (rare) April 1980 maturity yield

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flatflat yields similar for all maturities June 2000 yields similar for all maturities June 2000 maturity yield

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humpedhumped intermediate yields are highest May 2000 intermediate yields are highest May 2000 maturity yield

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Theories of the term structure explain relationship between yield and maturity what does the yield curve tell us? explain relationship between yield and maturity what does the yield curve tell us?

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The Pure Expectations Theory Assume: bond buyers do not have any preference about maturity i.e. bonds of different maturities are perfect substitutes Assume: bond buyers do not have any preference about maturity i.e. bonds of different maturities are perfect substitutes

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LT = long-term ST = short-term LT = long-term ST = short-term

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if assumption is true, then investors care only about expected return if expect better return from ST bonds, only hold ST bonds if expect better return from LT bonds, only hold LT bonds if assumption is true, then investors care only about expected return if expect better return from ST bonds, only hold ST bonds if expect better return from LT bonds, only hold LT bonds

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but investors hold both ST and LT bonds so, must EXPECT similar return: LT yields = average of the expected ST yields but investors hold both ST and LT bonds so, must EXPECT similar return: LT yields = average of the expected ST yields

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under exp. theory, slope of yield curve tells us direction of expected future ST rates

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why?why? if expect ST rates to RISE, then average of ST rates will be > current ST rate so LT rates > ST rates so yield curve SLOPES UP if expect ST rates to RISE, then average of ST rates will be > current ST rate so LT rates > ST rates so yield curve SLOPES UP

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ST rates expected to rise maturity yield

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if expect ST rates to FALL, then average of ST rates will be < current ST rate so LT rates < ST rates so yield curve slopes DOWN if expect ST rates to FALL, then average of ST rates will be < current ST rate so LT rates < ST rates so yield curve slopes DOWN

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ST rates expected to fall maturity yield

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if expect ST rates to STAY THE SAME, then average of ST rates will be = current ST rate so LT rates = ST rates so yield curve is FLAT if expect ST rates to STAY THE SAME, then average of ST rates will be = current ST rate so LT rates = ST rates so yield curve is FLAT

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ST rates expected to stay the same maturity yield

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ST rates expected to rise, then fall maturity yield

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Is this theory true? not quite. FACT: yield curve usually slopes up but expectations theory would predict this only when ST rates are expected to rise 50% of the time not quite. FACT: yield curve usually slopes up but expectations theory would predict this only when ST rates are expected to rise 50% of the time

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what went wrong? back to assumption: bonds of different maturities are perfect substitutes but this is not likely long term bonds have greater price volatility short term bonds have reinvestment risk back to assumption: bonds of different maturities are perfect substitutes but this is not likely long term bonds have greater price volatility short term bonds have reinvestment risk

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assumption is too strict so implication is not quite correct assumption is too strict so implication is not quite correct

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Liquidity Theory assume: bonds of different maturities are imperfect substitutes, and investors PREFER ST bonds assume: bonds of different maturities are imperfect substitutes, and investors PREFER ST bonds

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so if true, investors hold ST bonds UNLESS LT bonds offer higher yield as incentive higher yield = liquidity premium so if true, investors hold ST bonds UNLESS LT bonds offer higher yield as incentive higher yield = liquidity premium

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IF LT bond yields have a liquidity premium, then usually LT yields > ST yields or yield curve slopes up. IF LT bond yields have a liquidity premium, then usually LT yields > ST yields or yield curve slopes up.

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ProblemProblem How do we interpret yield curve? slope due to 2 things: (1) exp. about future ST rates (2) size of liquidity premium do not know size of liq. prem. How do we interpret yield curve? slope due to 2 things: (1) exp. about future ST rates (2) size of liquidity premium do not know size of liq. prem.

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if liquidity premium is small, then ST rates are expected to rise if liquidity premium is small, then ST rates are expected to rise maturity yield yield curve small liquidity premium

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if liquidity premium is larger, then ST rates are expected to stay the same if liquidity premium is larger, then ST rates are expected to stay the same maturity yield yield curve large liquidity premium

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Preferred Habitat Theory assume: bonds of different maturities are imperfect substitutes, and investor preference for ST bonds OR LT bonds is not constant assume: bonds of different maturities are imperfect substitutes, and investor preference for ST bonds OR LT bonds is not constant

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liquidity premium could be positive or negative yield curve very difficult to interpret do not know size or sign of liquidity premium liquidity premium could be positive or negative yield curve very difficult to interpret do not know size or sign of liquidity premium

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Segmented Markets Theory assume: bonds of different maturities are NOT substitutes at all assume: bonds of different maturities are NOT substitutes at all

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if assumption is true, separate markets for ST and LT bonds slope of yield curves tells us nothing about future ST rates unrealistic to assume NO substitution bet. ST and LT bonds if assumption is true, separate markets for ST and LT bonds slope of yield curves tells us nothing about future ST rates unrealistic to assume NO substitution bet. ST and LT bonds

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unrealistic to assume NO substitution

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