Presentation on theme: "So You Want to Be An Interpreter"— Presentation transcript:
1So You Want to Be An Interpreter Chapter 1: CommunicationOutline
2Communication Outline The Importance of CommunicationThe Communication ProcessCommunication in ActionMessage ConstructionSpeaker/Signer GoalThe Context of Message ConveyanceDegree of DirectnessPowerful/Powerless SpeechResponsible LanguageLinguistic Register
3The Importance of Communication Why is communication important?What is the purpose of communication?Interpreters are professional communicators thereforeit is important for us to understand the communication processInterpreters must understand the nature of communication and their role as a mediator of communication between two people.
4The Communication Process How do we communicate?Communication is interactive and dynamicMultiple and overlapping messages are simultaneously sent and receivedFact: In English,only 6% of meaning is in words,39% in vocal intonations and55% in gestures, body language and facial expressions.
5Contextual Environment The physical location where the interaction is taking place; andThe personal history each participant brings to the eventEnvironmental noise can distract the communicators:External noise: flickering of overhead florescent light; a person’s incessant coughing etcPhysiological noise: biological factors i.e., illness, exhaustion, heat or hungerPsychological noise: what one’s thinking i.e., internal stress, personal judgments of the other, random thoughts etc.
6Communication in Action Communication is imprecise because of the human element involved; communication is done with other peopleNo guarantee the receiver will decode the message the sender intendedEffective communicators must develop a variety of interpersonal skills and sensitivities that enable them to interact with other people in satisfying waysWhat kind of pre-interpreting skills do you think interpreters need to become effective?
7Group Activity 1: Group in 5’s. Create a circle facing each other. Discuss pre-requisite skills your group think is required of interpreters. Your group will have 10 minutes to discuss.Each person in the group write down a skill on post-it note (at least 5 skills).Post your skill that is similar with others on the board.
8Prerequisite skills for interpreters: To think analyticallyListen effectivelyExpress self clearly in signed, spoken and written formHave excellent “people skills”Wide range of experience; knowledge and language skillsUnderstand the meaning behind the message and recognize if someone is deliberately being vague
9Pragmatic Rules: who made the statement The location in which it was said;The tone of voice and the accompanying non-verbal behaviors; andThe relationship between the sender and receiverPragmatic rules are numerous and complex.* Watch video on nuances of language utterance
10Message Construction Speaker goal Context of the message conveyance Degree of directnessUse of powerful/powerless speechResponsible language andLinguistic Register
11Speaker/Signer Goal Activity 2: Why do we speak? What kind of purpose or goals are there for the speaker?Each group have 10 minutes to discuss and list at least 5 goals and write them on the board.If one group has a similar goal, just place a mark next to the goal.*See Fig 1-1 p. 1:10 for list of Speaker Goals.
12Context of Message Conveyance The “Who” and “Where” Status may be obvious i.e., judge’s robe or invisible: chief surgeon wearing street clothesSocial and cultural norms dictate how we speak i.e, how would you as a tourist speak to a border patrol?Cultural norms vary i.e., looking someone in the eyeWhere:i.e., If the discussion was in private or public changes the dynamics and influences the message
13Degree of Directness: Clarity Factors that determine direct or implicit communication:Goals of the speakerContext of the interactionCultural norms of politenessIf it is impolite to ask for a specific gift directly, the speaker will hint Ex: Girlfriend whose birthday is coming up to boyfriend, “ Oh I would love to have a copy of this music CD”or if someone broke the rules and asked outright, may hedge. My sister asking my 2 year old nephew if he threw the meatballs on the floor, He answered, Oh no, I dropped them.”
14Four Types of Implicit Language Equivocal language: signs or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way to mislead someone i.e, telling a friend that her hairdo is “different” rather than it is weird.Euphemistic language: socially acceptable phrases instead of blunt, descriptive ones i.e., “rest room” rather than bathroomAbstract language: “verbal shorthand” i.e., “I have to clean the house today” without listing what was done. Also lexical jargon i.e, calling marijuana, weed, maryjane, etc.Passive voice: statement where the person or thing performing the action is not overtly stated i.e., “The car was wrecked” does not tell us who crashed the car
15Powerful/Powerless Speech: The credibility of a Message Powerless Speech: see Fig 1-2 p. 1.17hedgeshesitations,intensifierspolite formstag questions andDisclaimersSpeakers who consistently incorporate these features come across as uncertain and lacking in confidenceAs a result, people view them as less credible and believable.
16Powerful Speech Powerful (From Fig 1-3 p. 1.19) Powerless I need an appointment with Mr. Choy, preferably sometime today or tomorrow.I asked for this appointment today because I need to discuss the terms of our contract.(From Fig 1-3 p. 1.19)PowerlessI kinda need to see Mr. Choy-umm… I don’t want to impose but…umm,, if it’s not too much trouble, maybe I could see him …er soon?Thank you so very much for meeting with me today. I really appreciate it. I uh..sorta need to discuss…uh.. the terms of our contract… if that’s okay with you.
17Responsible Language: Accountability “I”, “YOU”, and “IT” statements:If one uses “I” statement shows personal responsibility i.e., “when our discussions become overly emotional, I feel uncomfortable.”It Statements are often used in an attempt to avoid responsibility i.e., “It isn’t right to get so upset.”“You” statements can place negative judgment on the person addressed i.e., “You make me feel uncomfortable when you get too emotional”See Fig 1-4 p. 1.21
18“But” StatementsWhen the word “but” is used to join two statements, the second statement cancels or limits the statement that precedes it.It is a really good class, but I always get bored about halfway through.You have been a good employee, but I am going to have to let you go.She’s been a good neighbor, but I am glad to see her moving.“But” statements are frequently used as a strategy when a person is trying to soften the actual message being delivered and/or to avoid personal responsibility for the content of the message.
19Linguistic Registers: Degree of Formality All languages have registers to allow speakers to modify language in order to convey levels of formality or degree of familiarity between participants.Register determines:Turn-taking and interaction between sender and receiver of message;Complexity and completeness of sentence structure;Choice of vocabulary;Use of contractions;Volume of speech or size of signs;Rate (speed) of speech or signs;Clarity (diction, enunciation etc) of signs or speechSpeaker goals;Use of fillers and hesitations; andAllowable topics of discussionSee English examples p. 1.23
20Group Activity 3:Arrange yourselves in 5 groups, each group in a circle facing each other.Each group will be given a register to discuss, you will have 25 minutesFrozenFormalConsultativeInformal or CasualIntimateDiscuss the following:1. Kinds of setting,2. Possible Vocabulary and Sentence structure-give 1 or 2 examples,3. Turn-taking rules if any,4. Rate and volume of speech/signs5. Speaker goalsOne person will write down what the group have discussed and post it on the board.
21FrozenFormalConsultativeInformalIntimateSermonsM CPanelPartyPrivateCourtDebateClassroomDorm2 personLecturerDr’s officeHomeCoded secret messageAthletic eventsSituations:Characteristics:Usually borrowed from EnglishUsually on stageVariety of placesVarious placesIn private areasUnchangingNot frequentStanding or sittingUsually in public placesHiddenLimited eye contactLess eye contactMore eye contactMore expressiveSmaller sign movementsLimited variationsSigning is big and clear & slowerSigning is usually at regular paceSigning is faster pacedUse of coded messagesUsually no FSLess FSFS new wordsMore complex & use of slang signsMore abbreviations & NMSStandingDidactic signingUse of honorific pronounsQuestion & Answer formatMore feelings sharedMore feelingsshared
22Homework Assignment: Read Chapter 1: Communication Read thought questions and answer questions 1 and 2 p Due next classFor extra credit (10 points):With a partner, create a 5 minute dialogue on videotape with both of you using two different registers. Make a list of the things you notice between the two “presentations” Share your findings at the next class.