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Iyaw! Whoever Talks about (Cree) Interjections!? Arok Wolvengrey First Nations University of Canada.

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1 iyaw! Whoever Talks about (Cree) Interjections!? Arok Wolvengrey First Nations University of Canada

2 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections Definitions 2.Expressives - no addressee 2.1 Classification of Plains Cree Expressives 2.2 Observations 3.Interactives - addressee-oriented 3.1 Classification of Plains Cree Interactives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.3 Observations 4.Conclusions

3 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.1 Webster’s New World Dictionary College Edition (1953, p 762) an interjecting something interjected; exclamation in grammar, an exclamation thrown in without grammatical connection (e.g. ah! lo! pshaw! good-by!) Second College Edition (1976, p 735) the act of interjecting something interjected, as a word or phrase Gram. an exclamation thrown in without grammatical connection (Ex. ah! ouch! well!)

4 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.2 Oxford Dictionaries (Online): - [accessed 12/10/2013] an abrupt remark, especially as an aside or interruption: barracking and interjections from the protesters an exclamation, especially as a part of speech (e.g. ah!, dear me!). 1.3 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary: - [accessed 12/10/2013] a short sound, word or phrase spoken suddenly to express an emotion. Oh!, Look out! and Ow! are interjections.

5 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.4 Free Online Dictionary: - [accessed 12/10/2013] “A sudden, short utterance; an ejaculation.” “The part of speech that usually expresses emotion and is capable of standing alone.” “Any of the words belonging to this part of speech, such as Ugh! or Wow! (Linguistics / Grammar) a word or remark expressing emotion; exclamation (Linguistics / Grammar) a word or phrase that is characteristically used in syntactic isolation and that usually expresses sudden emotion; expletive [cf. The Collins Dictionary]

6 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.5 Wikipedia: - [accessed 12/10/2013] “In grammar, an interjection or exclamation may be a word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions). Filled pauses such as uh, er, um are also considered interjections. Interjections are often placed at the beginning of a sentence.” “An interjection is sometimes expressed as a single word or non- sentence phrase, followed by a punctuation mark.” “Interjection as a figure of speech refers to the use of one word.”

7 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.6 Introductory Linguistics Texts: (0/19)

8 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.7 Bloomfield (1933): Language (republished 1984) Under the heading minor sentences:  “Interjections are either special words such as ouch, oh, sh [...] or else phrases (secondary interjections), often of peculiar construction, such as dear me, goodness me, [...], please, thank you, good-bye.” (p 176)  “... as answers to questions; for this we have the special completive interjections, yes and no. (p )  “A substantive form naming a hearer.... [Such] interjections sir and ma’am are especially devoted to this use[;....] Many languages have special vocative forms for this use.” (p 177) “The lexical form appears... in certain positions of certain constructions or, if it is an interjection, in few or none;... (p 265)

9 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.7 Bloomfield (1933): Language (reprinted 1984) “the interjections pst! and sh! with which we demand silence...” (p 121) “... certain special speech forms, interjections, such as oh! ah! ouch! These forms all reflect a violent stimulus, but differ in connotation from an ordinary statement in which the speaker merely says that he is undergoing a strong stimulus. (p 156) In a discussion of substitution types and gestures:  “Especially the substitutes of the ‘this’ and ‘that’ types resemble interjections in their semantic closeness to non-linguistic forms of response; like interjections, they occasionally deviate from the phonetic pattern of their language. (p 250)

10 Plains Cree Interjections 1.Interjections: Definitions 1.8 Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008) Functional Discourse Grammar situate interjections as holophrastic utterances at the pragmatic or Interpersonal Level of the Grammar. divide Interjections into Expressives and Interactives (p 76) Expressives “are ways for Speakers to give vent to their reactions to elements of the ongoing communicative situation. One could easily imagine them being produced in solitude, as when one hits one’s thumb with a hammer.” (p 76) Interactives “differ from Expressives in being clearly directed to the Addressee.” (p 77) “Vocatives constitute a special class of Interactives,...” (p 76)

11 Plains Cree Expressives 2.Expressives: “The meaning of Expressives tend to recur across different languages. Thus we very regularly find expressions for Ekman et al.’s (1972) six basic emotions anger (damn), disgust (yuck), fear (help), joy (wow), sadness (aw) and surprise (well, well).” (p 76) It could be possible to expand on this list, such as with Ekman’s (1999) own expansion in which he adds the further emotions of: amusement, contempt, contentment, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, pride in achievement, relief, satisfaction, sensory pleasure, and shame. For this initial study, I will include only the original six basic emotions plus the expression of pain, which Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008) (and Bloomfield (1933)) explicitly include as well.

12 Plains Cree Expressives 2.1 Plains Cree Expressives: pain āwiya‘ouch, ow’ ~ āwiyā [cf. Woods Cree: ayayā] takay‘dammit!’ ; “prick!” anger āh‘aagh!’ mā‘surely not; come on’ [also: surprise (disbelief)] stā‘dammit!; geez, not again’ [cf. wācistakāc] takay‘dammit!; prick!’ [cf. -takay- NDI ‘penis’] wīnt‘dirty …’ [cf. wīnitakay ‘dirty prick’; wīnicisk ‘dirty ass’]

13 Plains Cree Expressives 2.2 Plains Cree Expressives: disgust āw‘ah! och! oh!’ [low intonation, dismissive or expressing disagreement] cah‘geez, ridiculous, absurd; nonsense; be serious’ [exclamation of disgust; also: cāh, cēh, cwā; see nc] iyaw‘oh for goodness sakes’ [low intonation; also surprise] mā‘surely not; come on’ [disbelief] nānapāwisk‘oh sure, now he gets here; too late’ [also: nānapāwis] nc‘geez, ridiculous, absurd; nonsense; be serious’ [exclamation of disgust; also: inc; see cah] nitakisa‘yeah, right!; not by any chance’ [also: nitaki, nitakis]

14 Plains Cree Expressives 2.1 Plains Cree Expressives: joy hah‘ha’ [also: ha; can also express schadenfreude: ‘so, serves him/her right’] haha‘ha, haha’ [also: ha, hah] num-num‘mmmm’ [pleasurable sensation from taste] tāpwē kihci‘truly great!’ wahwā‘oh my!’ [surprise, positive or negative] yahē‘yesss!’ yahow‘yahoo!’ sadness āmī‘oh my, oh dear’ [expression of sympathy, sorrow] wiyakāc‘that’s too bad, sorry to hear that’ [expression of sympathy, sorrow]

15 Plains Cree Expressives 2.1 Plains Cree Expressives: surprise ayiwāk‘what more?’ [cf. IPC ayiwāk ‘more’] aýiwāk ihkin‘goodness gracious, too much’ [cf. aýiwāk ‘more’ + VII ihkin ‘it exists’; literally “more exists(?)”] ānakacā‘oh my God! holy cow! cool!’ [also: ānakacay, nakacā] iyaw‘well, well now, for goodness sakes; oops’ [also: yaw] īh‘my goodness, good heavens, oh no!’ [also: ī] kakwāhýahkamik‘goodness gracious; how startling!’ māmaskāc‘amazing, wondrous, strange, unbelievable’ ōh‘oh!’ [possible English influence] wah‘oh; well’ [also: wa, wā, wāh] wahwā‘oh my! wow! good gracious’

16 Plains Cree Expressives 2.1 Plains Cree Expressives: surprise continued wahwāhay‘oh my! wow! good gracious; oh my goodness, oh for pete’s sake, geez!’ [cf. wāhay] wācistakāc‘oh my, goodness gracious, incredible! beyond reason!’ [also: wācistak, wācistikā, wācistakāt] wāhay‘oh my goodness, oh for pete’s sake, geez!’ [cf. wahwāhay] fear ēyahē‘oh no!’ īh‘ahh!’ īhay‘oh no!’ īhī‘enemy in sight!’

17 Plains Cree Expressives 2.2 Expressives: Observations Overlap between the categories (sometimes intonationally distinguished): pain and anger (e.g. takay!) anger and disgust (e.g. mā!) disgust and surprise (e.g. iyaw!) surprise and joy(e.g. wahwā!) surprise and fear(e.g. īh!) Not necessarily restricted to lacking an addressee: anger (e.g. wīnt! - and many other terms can be used vocatively to let an addressee know what you really think!) disgust (e.g. cah!, etc. - in response to someone’s statement, etc.) surprise (e.g. iyaw!, etc. - in response to someone’s statement, etc.) pain!(e.g. āwiya! - as a warning to a child)

18 Plains Cree Expressives 2.2 Expressives: Observations the Expressive Frame in Functional Discourse Grammar representation: (A 1 : [(F 1 :  Intj (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S ] (A 1 ) A = Discourse Act - not to be equated with clause or sentence, but will nevertheless result in a meaningful and complete utterance (cf. Bloomfield’s “minor sentence”) F = Illocution variable of the Discourse Act, - in the case, the Illocution is not abstract but instead filled by  Intj = the lexical Interjection, constituting the holophrastic message P S = the Speaker, as sole required participant Note: There is no variable for the Addressee (P A )

19 Plains Cree Expressives 2.2 Expressives: Observations a modified Expressive Frame for FDG: (A 1 : [(F 1 :  Intj (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S {(P 2 ) A }] (A 1 ) A = Discourse Act F = Illocution  Intj = Interjection P S = the Speaker P A = the Addressee Note: This adds an option to allow Expressives to overlap with the function of Interactives, since many can be used to impart a message to an addressee and are not restricted to Speaker-oriented use alone.

20 Plains Cree Interactives 3.Interactives: Interactives “differ from Expressives in being clearly directed to the Addressee.” (Hengeveld and Mackenzie 2008:77) Interactives also allow for additional (presupposed) communicative content to be added beyond the lexical interjection itself: e.g. Congratulations! or Congratulations [on winning the Nobel]! The form of Interactives may be dependent on “contextual circumstances”: e.g. Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening! - time of day greetings e.g. Obrigado / Obrigada! - gender-based “thank you” in Portuguese; etc. Interactives form a very mixed bag, and we might expect considerable language-specific variability. The following classification for Plains Cree is undoubtedly not complete. It is based on the few examples suggested by Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008), as augmented by categories from Dik’s (1997) earlier Functional Grammar discussion of Extra-Clausal Constituents, and by the Cree data itself.

21 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Greetings (opening) tānisi ‘hello; how are you?’ [lit: “how”] tānisi ēkwa ‘hello, how are you now?’ [lit: “how now”] tānisi kiya ‘hello, how are you?’ [lit: “how (are) you”] tānisi ēkwa kiya ‘hello, how are you now?’ [lit: “how (are) now you”] tānisi ātawiya ‘hello, how’s it going?’ [lit: “how although”] tānisi ātawiya kiya ‘hello, how are you getting along?’ [lit: “how although you”] tawāw ‘come in, welcome’ [lit: “there is room”]

22 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Greetings (response) ēyiwēhk‘so-so’ namōya nānitaw ‘I’m fine; no worries’ [literally: “not about”; also: mōya nānitaw; mōy nānitaw, mōnānitaw] takahki!‘great!’ Parting ēkosi‘that’s it’ [literally: “so, thus”] ēkosi māka‘that’s it then, but so it is’ [literally: “so but”] hāw‘okay; let’s go’ [also: ahām, ahāw, hām] ka-wāpamitin‘(I will) see you’ [also: ka-wāpamitin ici ‘I’ll see you later’, kīhtwām ka-wāpamitin ‘I’ll see you again’; ka-wāpamitin pa-pimātisiyahko ‘I’ll see you again if we are living’] mwēstas‘later’

23 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Asking āh‘eh, what’s that?’ hā‘eh, what’s that?’ kiya māka‘and you?’ Thanking hay-hay‘thanks’ [also: ay-hay] kinanāskomitin‘thank you’ [literally: “I am grateful to you”] kitatamihin‘thank you’ [literally: “you make me smile”]

24 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Acknowledgement ka‘oh, I see’ [also: kah; kā] hā‘oh, I see’ Agreement ēha‘yes’ [also: āha, ēha’ ] hāw‘okay, all right; fine, agreed’ [also: ahā, ahāw, ahām, āhāw, āw, hām] mhm‘ya’ [backchannel; used during another speaker’s narrative as acknowledgement or agreement without interruption] tak ōt āni‘it is a good thing’ [from: tako oti ani]

25 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Disagreement āh‘ah! och! oh!’ [low intonation; dismissive or disagreement; also: āw] cah‘geez, ridiculous, absurd; nonsense; be serious’ [exclamation of disgust; also: cāh, cēh, cwā, inc, nc] mā‘surely not; come on’ [disbelief] mwāc‘no; not; no way, by no means, not at all’ [also: mwāt, namwāc, namwāt] namōya‘no; not’ [also: mōya] nāh‘not so’ [cf. expressive: mā] nitakisa‘yeah, right!; not by any chance’ [also: nitaki, nitakis]

26 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Directive awas‘go away; get out of my way’ [singular] āstam‘come here’ [singular] ī‘look, behold’ [also: īh] kākito‘be quiet, shut up’ kiyām‘let it be; nevermind’ mah‘hark!, listen’ na‘here, take it’ [also: nah] niyā‘be off, get along; go ahead’ [singular] tawāw‘come in; welcome’

27 Plains Cree Interactives 3.1 Plains Cree Interactives: Warning awahē‘be careful’ [singular] pēyāhtak‘be careful’ [also: pēyāhtik] yākwā‘look out!’ the Interpretive Frame in FDG representation: (A 1 : [(F 1 :  Intj (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S (P 2 ) A {(C 1 ) Φ }] (A 1 ) This adds an obligatory addressee (P A ), which incidentally might be made explicit through the inclusion of second person pronouns as in Greetings (e.g. tānisi kiya, tānisi ēkwa kiya, etc.) or Questions (e.g. kiya māka), or Vocatives. It can optionally also add some additional communicative content {(C 1 ) Φ }.

28 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: Elements within vocative expressions can occupy one of two places in the FDG interactive frame: (A 1 : [(F 1 :  Intj (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S (P 2 ) A {(C 1 ) Φ }] (A 1 ) Particles which serve as summonses or attention-getting devices (cf. Dik 1997:386; Wolvengrey 2011:350) can be added to the list of interactives occupying the head (  Intj ) position in the interactive frame. ay‘hey’ [also: ēhēy, ēy, hēy] āh‘ah’ [neutral intonation, introductory; also: ā] ēy‘hey’ [also: ay, ēhēy, hēy] hāw‘well then’ [also: agreement, exhortation]

29 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: In addition to and often in combination with the interactive particles, there are specific vocative forms for indicating the addressee. In the singular, these are primarily kinship terms which may or may not take a distinct vocative form. Vocatives are in considerable flux in (Plains) Cree with conservative (sub)dialects retaining many irregular and distinct vocative patterns, while many other areas, perhaps exhibiting language loss, have simplified most vocatives and/or replaced them with the first person singular possessive referential forms of bound kinship noun stems. The following list of vocatives are arranged by the type of differences exhibited from the regular referential form. Vocatives may be a) shortened or clipped forms, (b) marked by a particular vocative singular affix, or (c) a mixture of these and other patterns.

30 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: Clipped Vocatives 1sPoss-ReferentialKinship Term cāpānnicāpān; nitāniskotāpāngreat-grandparent nōhkōnōhkomgrandmother nimosōnimosōmgrandfather nikā / nēkānikāwiymother nōhtānōhtāwiyfather niciwāniciwāmbrother; male parallel- cousin [male speaker only] nitawēmānitāwēmāwsibling of opposite gender nitānnitānisdaughter nitihkwānitihkwatimnephew; son-in-law

31 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: -ē Vocatives 1sPoss-ReferentialKinship Term nisikosēnisikosmother-in-law; cross-aunt nisisēnisisfather-in-law; cross-uncle nimisēnimisolder sister nistēsēnistēsolder brother nicāhkosēnicāhkossister-in-law; female cross-cousin [female only] nisīmēnisīmyounger sibling Mixed Vocatives 1sPoss-ReferentialKinship Term nikosēnikosisson nōsisēnōsisimgrandchild nikwēmēnikwēmēsnamesake; namer

32 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: Like other interactives, plurality of an addressee can be indicated. Any kinship term - and some additional nouns - can be marked to indicate plural address by the vocative plural suffix ‑ itik (cf. regular plural -ak). Plural Kinship Voc 1sPoss-ReferentialKinship Term nōhkomitiknōhkomakgrandmothers nimosōmitiknimosōmakgrandfathers nimisitiknimisakolder sisters nistēsitiknistēsakolder brothers nitānisitiknitānisakdaughters nikosisitiknikosisaksons niwāhkōmākanitikniwāhkōmākanakrelatives Plural Nominal Voc ReferentialGloss iskwētikiskwēwakladies/women nāpētiknāpēwakgentlemen/men

33 Plains Cree Vocatives 3.2 Plains Cree Vocatives: While the regular animate plural merely indicates number of the referent (as provided at the semantic/representational level of FDG and subsequently given morphosyntactic and phonological form through encoding), the vocative plural -itik is a distinct morpheme triggered by a plural feature of the Addressee (P A ) at the pragmatic/interpersonal level of FDG, or simply inserted as part of the lexical vocative/name. The following examples, expressing both lexical interjectives and vocatives, would thus have the accompanying FDG representations below. e.g.āh, nikosē!... (A 1 : [(F 1 : āh (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S (nikosē) A ] (A 1 ) e.g.hāw, nimosōmitik!... (A 1 : [(F 1 : hāw (F 1 )) (P 1 ) S (nimosōmitik) A ] (A 1 )

34 Plains Cree Interjections 4.Plains Cree Interjections: Conclusions Most Interactives are invariant in form, though there are some that vary by the number of the addressee. Directives:singularplural(plural suffix) ‘go away’awasawasitik (-itik) ‘come here’āstamāstamik / āstamitik (-(it)ik) ‘go on’niyāniyāk (-k) Warnings:singularplural(plural suffix) ‘be careful’awahēawahēk (-k) The two plural patterns mirror the verbal Imperative (-k) and the Vocative (-itik).

35 Plains Cree Interjections 4.Plains Cree Interjections: Conclusions More complex verbal patterns might also be in evidence if certain formulas of Parting and Thanking are fully included as Interactives. Thanking:1s>2s1s>2petc... ‘thank you’kinanāskomitin kinanāskomitināwāw (“be grateful”) ‘thank you’kitatamihin kitatamihināwāw (“make smile”) Parting:1s>2s 1s>2p etc... ‘see you later’ka-wāpamitin icika-wāpamitināwāw ici First person plural (1p) forms are also possible.

36 Plains Cree Interjections 4.Plains Cree Interjections: Conclusions These may take the full range of inverse local set agreement and, as they represent only the speech act participants (speaker and addressee), such forms are directly linked to the interpersonal/pragmatic level of FDG. Full verbal forms may originally be the communicated content, but over time grammaticalize to become more and more invariable resulting in interactive (and perhaps ultimately expressive?) interjections. cf.Productive VAI stem:kito- ‘make a sound, speak up’ 2s.Imp: (ē)kā(wi)ya kito! ‘Don’t make a sound!’ Interactive Interjection:kākito! ‘Shut up!’ Whereas kito- can be fully inflected, kākito(k) can only be in singular and plural imperative-like forms as Interactive interjections.

37 Plains Cree Interjections 4.Plains Cree Interjections: Conclusions Phonetic forms of Cree Interactives (and Expressives) usually keep to the minimal word requirements of the language, but do occasionally break the phonetic rules: /h/-initial words only occur as interjections (e.g. hā, hāw, hay-hay, etc.) Single-syllable words are very rare, but proportionately more occur as interjections (e.g. āh, cah, hā, hāw, ī, īh, mah, na, wah), possibly reflecting a process of phonetic as well as semantic reduction. In contrast, hesitatory particles (e.g. aya, ayi, ayihk) must be two syllables to allow for the stress/intonational patterns of the language to work even when hesitating. Nothing sounds more like a non-fluent speaker than someone peppering their Cree speech with “um” (except at the end of 3s Indp Indc VTIs: e.g. wāpahtam :-).

38 Plains Cree Interjections Acknowledgements Most interjections (expressives, interactives, and vocatives) cited in this paper are found as entries in Wolvengrey However, others have been added to the data set through the contributions of discussants on the “Nēhiyawēwin (Cree) Word/Phrase of the Day” facebook site (https://www.facebook.com/groups/ /), particularly the section on expressives as discussed on March 29-31, Fort heir contributions to this discussion, I am particularly grateful to Sekwun Ahenakew, Guy Albert, Paul Danial Beatty, Mary Cardinal Collins, Pauline Clarke, Laura Custer, Wayne Goodspirit, Celina Jones, Billy Joe Laboucan, Kevin Lewis, Miriam McNab, Arden Ogg, Solomon Ratt, Les Skinner, Johnjames Spence, and Ramona Washburn.https://www.facebook.com/groups/ / I am also grateful to the organizers and reviewers of an earlier and very different version of this paper that was to have been a part of the 2013 International Workshop on Functional Discourse Grammar in Vienna (Sept 5-6), but which I was unable to attend for health reasons. As always, I am especially grateful to my wife, Jean Okimāsis, for her many contributions through discussion, endurance through the rants, proofreading, proofviewing, and general grounding, not to mention her not inconsiderable skill at healing. Any and all errors remain solely my own.

39 Plains Cree Interjections References Ameka, F “Interjections: The universal yet neglected part of speech.” Journal of Pragmatics 18, Bloomfield, Leonard (1933). Language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Dik, Simon C The Theory of Functional Grammar, Part 1: The Structure of the Clause. Second, revised edition, ed. by Kees Hengeveld. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Ekman, Paul “Basic Emotions” in Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, T. Dalgleish and M. Power, (eds.). Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Ekman, Paul., Wallace V. Friesen, and Phoebe Ellsworth Emotion in the Human Face. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press. Goffman, Erving Forms of Talk. Oxford: Blackwell. Hengeveld, Kees “Epilogue.” in A New Architecture for Functional Grammar. J. Lachlan Mackenzie and María de los Ángeles Gómez-Gonzáles, (eds.). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Hengeveld, Kees, and J. Lachlan Mackenzie Functional Discourse Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jackendoff, Ray “Possible stages in the evolution of the language capacity.” Trends in Cognitive Science, Vol. 3, No. 7.

40 Plains Cree Interjections References Mackenzie, J. Lachlan “The basis of syntax in the holophrase” in Functional Grammar and Verbal Interaction, Studies in Language Companion Series 44, Mike Hannay and A. Machtelt Bolkestein (eds.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Wharton, Tim Abstract for “Interjections, language and the showing/telling continuum.” 3 rd Conference on the Evolution of Language. Paris, April 3-6, accessed December 28, “Interjections, language and the 'showing-saying' continuum.” Pragmatics and Cognition 11(1), Wierzbicka, A “The semantics of interjection.” Journal of Pragmatics 18, Wilkins, D “Interjections as deictics.” Journal of Pragmatics 18, Wolvengrey, Arok nēhiýawēwin: itwēwina / Cree: Words. Volumes 1 & 2. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center.

41 iyaw! Whoever Talks about (Cree) Interjections!? Arok Wolvengrey Dept. of Indigenous Languages, Arts and Cultures First Nations University of Canada 1 First Nations Way Regina, SK S4S 7K2


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