3Religious/Cult Centers of Ancient Egypt MEMPHISHELIOPOLISHERMOPOLISTHEBES
4MEMPHIS Menes (Narmer) unites Upper and Lower Egypt with capital at Memphis. c.3100 B.C.Narmer paletteMetropolitan Museum of ArtNew York
5Mythology, Religion and Kingship in Egypt Official state religion King as priest:Pharaoh as Horus or son of Re and, after death, OsirisThe pharaoh Chephren with Horus. (The statue originally stood with twenty-two other royal figures as centerpiece of the statue cult in the king's valley temple, Giza. Fourth Dynasty circa 2550 BC. )
6Tutankhamun as Osiris ( Dynasty XVIII tomb painting, from the north wall of the tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings).
7Timeline of Ancient Egypt c Predynastic Period c Early Dynastic: Dynasty 1 c Early Dynastic: Dynasty 2 c Early Dynastic: Dynasty 3 c Old Kingdom Dynasty 4 c Old Kingdom Dynasty 5 c Old Kingdom Dynasty 6 c Old Kingdom Dynasties 7 & 8 c First Intermediate Period: Dynasties c Middle Kingdom Dynasties c Second Intermediate Period Dynasty c New Kingdom Dynasty 18 c New Kingdom Dynasty 19 c New Kingdom Dynasty 20 c Third Intermediate Period Dynasty 21 c Third Intermediate Period Dynasties c Late Period Dynasties and Persian Occupation Ptolemaic Period 30 BC AD Roman Period 330 AD Byzantine Period
8Egyptian Pantheon Anubis Re Hathor Isis Osiris Horus Theriomorphism: Manifestation of some aspect of the god’s powerE.g., Hathor as cow. Cow as symbol of fertilityAtumAmunFor more information, see
9Sources Coffin Texts Middle Kingdom 2025-1700 Pyramid Texts as early asB.C.Old Kingdom
10a collection of formulas, hymns, and prayers for the deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.The Egyptians believed that a Book of the Dead was needed to pass safely through the demons of the Underworld after death.Book of the DeadBook of the Dead of Maiherperi BC, 18th Dynasty The Judgment of the Dead
11AfterlifeIllustration from the Book of the Dead (shows deceased being led to judgment by jackal- headed god Anubis, where his heart is weighed against a feather, symbol of truth, in the presence of Thoth, ibis- headed god of wisdom who wears the wide sash of a priest; he notes the results of the weighing. Then, the deceased is led to the supreme judge of the dead and ruler of the underworld, Osiris, who is shown enthroned with attendants. From Thebes. Painted papyrus from the Nineteenth Dynasty ca B.C. )
12Ptah, Creator god of Memphis Temple of Denderah. This engraving represents a pharaoh making offerings to the god Ptah and to the goddess Sekhmet, his wife. Ptah = Primordial MoundSee Bierlein, pp
13Memphis Creation Myth c. 2900 B.C. political goal:1.) to celebrate Ptah, the local god of Memphis2.) unification of Two EgyptsPtah in primaeval water comes to Heliopolis and calls it Memphisact of creation = Ptah desires himself eight other gods = Ogdoad
15Shabaka Stone Shabaka (712-698 B.C.), the first Ethiopian born pharaoh He (Ptah) gave birth to the gods, He made the towns, He established the nomes, He placed the gods in their shrines, He settled their offerings, He established their shrines, He made their bodies according to their wishes. Thus the gods entered into their bodies, Of every wood, every stone, every clay, Every thing that grows upon him In which they came to be. Thus were gathered to him all the gods and their kas, Content, united with the Lord of the Two Lands.Shabaka ( B.C.), the first Ethiopian born pharaohOn the Shabaka Stone:Translation:
16Pyramid Text Hymn to Osiris Coffin as Geb (Earth) Lid as Nut (Sky) Nut on a coffin lid
17CreationPainted papyrus depicting Shu, the air god, raising his daughter Nut, the sky goddess, above her brother Geb, the earth god, thus creating the world).
19Heliopolis (Modern Cairo) Dominant city of the Old KingdomSynthesis ofCreation story of Atumand the story of OsirisThe oldest surviving obelisk in the world, c.2000 B.C.
20Coffin Text Creation via masturbation Atum spit me [Shu] out Compare Bierlein, pg. 51
21Heliopolitan Ennead From Heliopolis: Nun (watery chaos) Atum (sun) Seven of nine members of the Heliopolitan Ennead, as represented in the judgment scene on the Papyrus of Ani. From right to left: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut and sitting next to each other, Isis and Nephthys. Other members of the Ennead include Osiris, Seth, Horus and Thot.From Heliopolis:Nun (watery chaos)Atum (sun)Shu (air) Tefnut (moisture)Geb (Earth) Nut (sky)Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys
22Creation of the World according to Heliopolis Development of the EnneadBirth of Isis and OsirisDeath and Resurrection of Osiris
23The Ennead Cyclical Struggle: Osiris (Underworld) and Seth (Chaos) Prominence of Horus (King of Egypt)
24Isis and Osiris The Birth of Isis and Osiris The Rivalry of Seth and HorusWanderings of isisIsis Finds the Coffin of OsirisThe Reawakening of OsirisIsis suckling the Horus-Child in the papyrus swamps.
25The Resurrection of Osiris Ritual of OsirisFlooding of the NileRebirth of EgyptThe Osiris Mysteries as portrayed in the Temple of Isis at Philae.(images After H. Rosellini, Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia, Vol. III (Pisa, 1844), Pl. XXIII.)