Presentation on theme: "Response to a nuclear plant incident in Wisconsin How a nuclear power plant incident could affect your county October 14, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Response to a nuclear plant incident in Wisconsin How a nuclear power plant incident could affect your county October 14, 2009
Purpose Notification procedures during a nuclear power plant event Introduction to basic radiological emergency preparedness terminology Summary of early-stage (post incident) decision making Identify potential issues –Agricultural –Political
“Risk” County Counties in which emergency planning is needed to ensure the health and safety of the public in the event of a radiological release Within 10 miles of a nuclear power plant Wisconsin has 3 risk counties
Ingestion County Counties in which it is estimated that the health and safety of the general public could be affected through ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water Within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant 21 counties in Wisconsin qualify as an “ingestion county”
What happens in the event of a nuclear plant incident? WEM Duty Officer Within 30 minutes of an “initiating condition,” the power plant notifies the State (Il) and risk counties Calls plant to verify legitimacy and discuss plant conditions State Radiological Coordinator Makes notifications to ingestion counties, regional director, administrator
Response phase Actions taken at each ECL State and risk counties make notifications Duty Officer monitors situation Discretionary activation of State and county Emergency Operations Centers Livestock advisory within 10 miles (stored feed & water) issued; field teams staged Evacuation or shelter-in-place ordered Risk county agricultural holds issued Ingestion county ag holds issued, field sampling begins Ag holds modified in appropriate counties as field sampling progresses ~0 to 3 Days Days to Months Recovery phase Radiological release
Plume-phase (Emergency phase) Airborn radiological release is imminent or occurring Acute health effects limited to ≤10 miles from nuclear power plant Immediate health dangers are: –inhalation of radioactive particles –acute external exposure
Intermediate phase Initial plume phase actions completed –Evacuation or sheltering Assessment of long term consequences –Computer modeling –Sampling Consequences and recommendations based on deposition
Relocate “The removal or continued exclusion of people (households) from contaminated areas to avoid chronic radiation exposure.” –FEMA, “Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program Manual (Draft),” May 18, 2009
Evacuate Occurs when little information is available Immediate health risk is high (acute exposure) Protective Action Guidelines (PAG) is 1 Rem over 96 hours Occurs within 10 miles of a nuclear plant What’s the difference? Relocate Occurs after field-verified data is available Immediate health risk is low (chronic exposure) Threshold is an exposure of > 2 rem in the first year Occurs within or beyond 10 miles of a nuclear plant
Post-plume Deposition Radioactive materials are deposited on the ground Chronic health effects could extend up to 50 miles Not an immediate public health risk Some external exposure from particles (“ground shine”) Health risk is primarily through the ingestion of food or water
Ingestion-phase Focuses on preventing the ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water Restrictions are put in place –Agricultural holds –Hunting, fishing and trapping bans Consumer recommendations are conveyed –Food washing / peeling –“Do not eat…” –Bottled water Extensive sampling plan is developed and implemented
What is a “sampling plan?” A strategy on where & what to sample (i.e. water, milk, vegetables) Sampling priorities are determined Federal, state & counties collaborate on the prioritization –Predominate agricultural markets –Time of year Based on limited resources –Field sampling teams –Laboratories
Predictive Models vs. Field Sampling Initial evacuation and ingestion areas will be based on a projection (computer models) Projections are based on assumptions: –A given radiological release time (i.e. 4 hours) –A constant wind speed (i.e. 5 mph) –Individuals staying in an area for a given timeframe (i.e. 96 hours without leaving) Will apply to: –plume evacuation –ingestion deposition Refining the areas will be based on field data –“Fly overs” –Field sampling
Potential Issues Prioritization of sampling Contamination levels Public Perception Consumer Confidence Insurance and aid
How much is too much contamination? FDA has guidance on pre-determined level Called “Derived Intervention Level” (DIL) –Varies by isotope and food product If it’s below the DIL but above background… –Political issue –ANI reimbursement issue Two radioactive isotopes are of primary concern: –Iodine 131 (half life of 8 days) –Cesium 137 (half life of ~30 years)
Public Perception Public information and education is crucial General public’s distrust of government and industry Response organizations must be unified
Consumer Confidence May not be based in reality: –What did Oprah do to the beef industry? –Did the “Swine flu” affect the pork industry? May be based on fear: –Peanut butter –Tomatoes
American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) is a joint underwriting association created by some of the largest insurance companies in the United States $300 million policy for damages to bodies & property (real & personal) ANI does not take ownership of contaminated property –Up to the owner and/or government to handle Covers expenses directly related to evacuation (i.e. transportation, food and lodging) Loss of wages covered –Only as a result of the evacuation order –If a business permanently closes, wages are not covered Permanent relocation expenses are not covered Governmental costs are covered (what is above normal operational costs, directly related to the incident) –Transportation, food, sheltering, law enforcement –Reimbursement period includes entire span of evacuation order, plus additional 30 days after the order has been lifted.
Federal Aid FEMA is still figuring out all the aid the federal government would make available Joint Field Office, Disaster Recovery Centers Eligible for aid, when no other means of compensation is available.
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