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Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice? Ralf Döring University of Greifswald.

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Presentation on theme: "Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice? Ralf Döring University of Greifswald."— Presentation transcript:

1 Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice? Ralf Döring University of Greifswald

2 Overview Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation –Economic perspective –Network in Germany’s coastal waters and EEZ Fisheries economics and the ecosystem approach –Background –Experiences Management plans in Natura 2000 sites Conclusions/Outlook Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

3 Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation EU Bird- and Flora Fauna Habitat-Directive defines species and habitats which are to preserve Obligation of member states to designate areas Six years after designation the status of species and habitats must be reviewed If some degradation happend further restrictions on activities Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

4 Natura 2000 – Economic perspective Weak Sustainability –Overall capital stock, Measuring benefits and costs of individual projects (sand and gravel removal, fishing, wind parks) => ‚relative scarcity‘, ‚efficient investments‘ Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June Strong Sustainability –Preservation of a certain amount of ‚natural capital‘ to preserve ecological services, long-term resource use ‚absolut scarcity‘, efficient resource use‘

5 Natura 2000 – Economic perspective Switch from the ‚normal‘ case of Cost-Benefit-Analysis to setting of limits to the use of resources/areas/ species etc. Natura 2000 sites: minimum level necessary to preserve ‚unsubstitutable‘ ecological services Role of Economics –Limits set target reference points (standards) –Economists shall calculate efficient ways to hold the limits –Fisheries will phase restrictions on fishing practice in Natura 2000 sites => opportunity costs? Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

6 Natura 2000 sites – North Sea SPA (Birds) FFH-Directive Source:

7 Natura 2000 sites – Baltic Sea SPA (Birds) FFH-Directive Source:

8 Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Background Multi-species-models Optimisation models (long-term yields) Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?) Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

9 HerringSprat Cod Salmon Seals Human Juvenile Cod Mysidaceen0-Group Herring Big zooplankton 0-Group Sprat 0-Group Cod Cod eggsSmall zooplankton Phytoplankton& Bacteria Nutrients Otherfish species feedingplankton Mysidaceen Phytoplankton Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Background Source: Döring et al. 2005

10 Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Background Multi-species-models Optimisation models (long-term yields) Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?) Sustainable fisheries Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

11 Sustainable Fisheries Stock perspective Precautionary approach (Bpa, Blim, minimum stock size) Long-term management plans Recovery of overused stocks Ecosystem perspective External Effects – Measurement Opportunity costs of fishing methods Preserving ecosystem services Combined ecological/economic research! Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

12 Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Experiences Typical Quote - Economist „Why we should care about the environment? We care about the fishing sector, the fishermen, human activities and nothing else.“ Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

13 Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Experiences Typical Quote - Ecologist „Why should we care about fishermen? We care about the fish stocks, the environment. Fisheries ruin the ecosystems.“ Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

14 Problem: How to reach a sustainable Baltic Cod fishery (overused stock, many external effects (esp. bird bycatch)? Two phase strategy developed in a paper: –recover the cod stock as most necessary action for Baltic Cod, –afterwards switch to longlines as fishing method with few negative ecological consequences (then economically possible) Result: Sustainable Fishery (healthy stock, few negative externalities)? Reviewer: I‘m deeply worried about using a single-species approach when you want to describe an ecosystem-based- approach – you need a multi-species-model! Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Experiences Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

15 Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based- approach - Experiences Remember!

16 Management plans in Natura 2000 sites Natura 2000 sites in German waters need management plans in a few years Debate started what and how to manage Lack of data on many ecological conse- quences of fishing –Bird bycatch –Marine Mammal bycatch –Exact fishing grounds of fishing with trawls –Etc. Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

17 Fishing effort and bird densities Clangula hyemalis density and gill nets Source: Döring et al. 2005

18 Trawling in sensitive habitats Sensitive habitats at Kriegers Flak Trawling tracks Sand and gravel areas Source: Döring et al. 2005

19 Trawling in sensitive habitats Fishing effort by German vessels in the ICES rectangles 38G3 Source: Döring et al. 2005

20 Suggestion: Few negative impacts of trawling in 38 G3 and Kriegers Flak but some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals => Opportunity Costs! Example: Cod fishery again – fishing methods and costs Management plans in Natura 2000 sites Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

21 Fishing methods and external effects

22 Fishing methods – Longlines vs. Trawls* Table 2. Fishing costs estimates for Baltic Sea cod fisheries based on the 2004 EU target fleet size (Döring et al., 2005) Fishing GearAnnual Landings (tonnes)Fishing Costs (Euros per tonne) 1 Bottom trawl 25,0001,700 2 Bottom trawl 50,0001,200 3 Bottom trawl 150, Longlines150,0001,000 *Estimation of costs compared to allowed landings (row 1 and 2: recovery phase, row 3 + 4: after recovery, stock above Bpa

23 Problem: Some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals –> Opportunity Costs! Solutions: –1. Calculation of these opportunity costs (research planned with commercial fishing vessels) –2. If Opportunity Costs are severe payments for fishermen who avoid external effects (like agri-environmental schemes) – Impossible at the moment –3. Certification possible? Selling of fish from these areas under a certain label. Management plans in Natura 2000 sites Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

24 Conclusions/Outlook Impact assessments are the first joint efforts in STECF – problems on both sites Work ont joined environmental and economic goals (stock levels, less negative impacts, etc.) with an idea about the future of fishing fleets Natura 2000 managment plans will be a field of joint advice It takes some time to learn at least the basics of biology/ecology as economists More complex models may not be the solution! Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald 550 Years FAME Workshop June

25 Thank you very much!


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