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Proper Implementation of the MSY-Concept in the CFP European Parliament Brussels, 29 Nov 2011 Rainer Froese, IFM-GEOMAR.

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Presentation on theme: "Proper Implementation of the MSY-Concept in the CFP European Parliament Brussels, 29 Nov 2011 Rainer Froese, IFM-GEOMAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Proper Implementation of the MSY-Concept in the CFP European Parliament Brussels, 29 Nov 2011 Rainer Froese, IFM-GEOMAR

2 Overview Four terms Legal background MSY-Concept applied to European fish stocks ‚Make-or-break‘ issues with the CFP reform

3 Four Terms Biomass (B) is the body-weight of all fish in the water MSY is the Maximum Sustainable Yield that can be taken from a population (=stock) of fish indefinitely B msy is the biomass that a fish stock must have, so that it can deliver the maximum sustainable yield MSY F msy is the fishing pressure (the proportion of fish killed by fishing) resulting in B msy

4 Biomass and Yield of Eastern Baltic Cod Froese & Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010

5 Fishing Mortality of European Fish Stocks Average fishing pressure on European fish stocks. The lower arrow indicates the path if 75% of the stocks were to be fished at the maximum sustainable rate in However, with the trend since 2000, that target will be missed by more than 30 years. Froese and Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010 CFP

6 Status of European Fish Stocks 6 Landings from ICES 2010, MSY from Froese and Proelß 2010

7 Legal Background The Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982), in force since 1994, requires countries to maintain stocks in their EEZ such that they can produce MSY The precautionary principle is contained in the EU- Treaty. It requires that in case of uncertainty, the less dangerous margin of error has to be used as target. This is explicitly applicable to the use of natural resources. UNFSA (1995) clarifies that after recovery, F has to be smaller than F msy. So far, UNCLOS and UNFSA have been implemented by New Zealand, Australia and the USA. 7

8 Why is a Proper Implementation of the MSY-Concept of Global Importance? 42% of the global trade in fish and fish products is imported by Europe A CFP reform that correctly implements the Law of the Sea and UNFSA, such as done by USA, NZ and AUS, will force others to follow A failed CFP reform will encourage continued overfishing, in Europe and globally US$ 1.2 billion European fish exports into the USA will be endangered 8

9 The First ‚Make-or-Break‘ Issue with the Basic Regulation Proposal Article 6 and others prescribe that stocks are to be maintained ABOVE levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield. This is a proper implementation of UNCLOS, UNFSA, and the precautionary principle.

10 MSY-Concept for European Stocks Froese et al Fish and Fisheries Below MSY-Level Above MSY-Level

11 Below MSY Level Stressed ecosystems Small fish Small stock size High fluctuations Low, uncertain catch High effort /cost Low / no profit Low impact impossible MPAs problematic Subsidies necessary Social status low (stubborn overexploiters) Above MSY Level Healthy ecosystems Large fish Large stock sizes Low fluctuations High, certain catch Low effort /cost High profit Low impact possible MPAs unproblematic Subsidies not necessary Social status high (respected custodians) 11

12 How to get Above MSY-Level? Background Info: The faster Above-MSY level is reached, the higher the overall profits in the fishery The fastest way is to close the fishery for 1-3 years, depending on the stock. This would bring the most profit to the fishery, but fishers still don‘t want it. 12

13 Simulated Recovery of North Sea Cod: Catches 13 Comparison of two management scenarios with respect to total removals, which consist of landings, discards, and unreported catches: the bold line is the actual management, the broken line represents a simulated recovery, with only discard mortality in , and fishing at Fmsy from 2006 onward.

14 Simulated Recovery of North Sea Cod: Biomass 14 Comparison of two management scenarios for the North Sea cod with respect to spawning stock biomass: the bold line is actual management; the broken line is a simulated recovery with three year closure and then fishing at Fmsy. Note that the simulated recovery is based on actual recruitment.

15 Simulated Recovery of North Sea Cod: Profits 15 Comparison of two management scenarios with respect to profits, which consist of the difference between revenues (market price of cod times landings) and fishing costs: the bold line are profits according to STECF data, the broken line represents profits from simulated recovery, with only discard mortality (zero profits) in , and fishing at Fmsy from 2006 onward (Froese and Quaas, submitted).

16 How to Get Above MSY-Level? 1.For stocks where F at or below F msy : reduce F to 0.9 or 0.75 F msy 2.For stocks where F > F msy : reduce F to F msy by 2014 (transition period), apply 1) thereafter. 3.For stocks where F > F msy : if a good year-class is coming in, don‘t increase catches. This will reduce F and will allow the recruits to rebuild the stock, without pain for the fishers. 16

17 Biomass and Yield of Eastern Baltic Cod Froese & Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010

18 The Second ‚Make-or-Break‘ Issues in the Basic Regulation Proposal Article 16: The Council of Ministers is to fix 100+ fishing opportunities every year. This is political micro-management. Instead, the Council should only fix long-term mangement plans and other policies and leave the application to the administration. Article 16 needs to be changed.

19 Refs and Acknowledgements Froese, R. and M. Quaas Three options for rebuilding the cod stock in the eastern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434: Froese, R., T.A. Branch, A. Proelß, M. Quaas, K. Sainsbury and C. Zimmermann Generic harvest control rules for European fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 12: Froese, R. and A. Proelß Rebuilding fish stocks no later than 2015: will Europe meet the deadline? Fish and Fisheries 11:

20 Thank You Rainer Froese IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel


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