2 What kinds of materials does a cell need to survive?
3 What kinds of materials does a cell need to survive? WaterOxygenGlucose (sugar)“Food”Amino acids (from meat protein that you ate)Glucose (from carbohydrates that you ate)Lipids (from fats that you ate)
5 What does the cell membrane do? The cell membrane lets things in and out of a cell.5
6 What does the cell membrane do? The cell membrane lets things in and out of a cell.WaterOxygenGlucose (sugar)“Food”Amino acids (from meat protein that you ate)Glucose (from carbohydrates that you ate)Lipids (from fats that you ate)
7 Cellular Transport is the movement of materials across the cell’s membrane.
8 Where is the cell membrane found? The cell membrane is found on the outside of animal cellsThe cell membrane is found under the cell wall in plant cells.
13 Atoms and MoleculesThe cell is the smallest LIVING UNIT. The cell is the building block of life.But the basic building blocks for EVERYTHING in the Universe is the atom.Atoms are NOT LIVING
14 Atoms and Molecules If atoms are put together, they form a molecule. + =+2 hydrogen atoms oxygen atom = water
15 Structural Organization Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell Organelle Molecule Atoms Smallest living unit(Cell Membrane)(Phospholipid) Smallest unit15
16 The Structure of the Cell Membrane Because the cell membrane is made up of2 layers of phospholipids, it can also be called the phospholipid bilayer.Phospholipid Bilayer
17 The Structure of the Cell Membrane Outside the CellProteinInside the CellAnimal Cell
18 Selectively Permeable A cell membrane is selectively permeable, meaning that it will only let certain things go through the cell membrane.
19 There are Several Ways to Get Materials Across the Cell Membrane
20 Does the Movement of the Materials Require Energy? If it DOES NOT require energy, it is called passive transport.If it DOES require energy, it is called active transport.
21 Passive Transport There are 3 types of passive transport: Diffusion OsmosisFacilitated Diffusion
22 DiffusionDiffusion is when atoms and molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.(They move from where they are to where they are not.)
23 Diffusion This is what diffusion looks like. beginning of diffusion middle of diffusion equilibrium
24 Fun FactThe reason that atoms and molecules always move from an area where they are to an area where they are not is because they are trying to reach a state of equilibrium where all of the particles are evenly distributed through out.beginning of diffusion middle of diffusion equilibrium
25 DiffusionDiffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it does not require transport proteins or energy)Protein25
26 Of all the things a cell needs, what do you think moves in and out of the cell by diffusion? 26
27 What moves in and out of the cell by diffusion? OxygenThis is how oxygen makes its way from your lungs to your blood stream and eventually to every cell you have.
28 Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water. (Scientists thought since you are made up of so much water and water is such a special molecule, that it needed its own separate term!)
29 Osmosis and Diffusion Protein Osmosis and diffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it does not require transport proteins or energy)Protein
30 Facilitated Diffusion When molecules are too big to float past the cell membrane, they must go through proteins that are in the cell membrane instead.Example: glucose
31 Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion means the molecules must go through the transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer.GlucoseProteinFacilitate = to helpSo the proteins are helping the molecule cross the cell membrane.
32 Active TransportActive transport is when the cell has to use energy to get the transport proteins to pump atoms or molecules into or out of the cell.
33 Active Transport Protein Facilitated Diffusion means the atoms or molecules mustuse energy to go through the transport proteins in thephospholipid bilayer.energyProtein
34 Why Would a Cell Need Energy to Do Active Transport Why Would a Cell Need Energy to Do Active Transport? What is it trying to overcome?
35 Why Would a Cell Need Energy to Do Active Transport? Because the cell already has too much of the atom or molecule (it has reached equilibrium) and if the cell requires more, it must use energy to overcome the tendency to reach equilibrium.35
36 What If…What if the particle is too big to enter or leave the cell through transport proteins? How does the cell get that particle anyway?
37 What If… Endocytosis and Exocytosis What if the particle is too big to enter or leave the cell through transport proteins? How does the cell get that particle anyway?Endocytosis and Exocytosis
38 EndocytosisIn order for a cell to get the giant particle into the cell, the cell must wrap part of its cell membrane around the particle and fold the whole thing into itself forming a vesicle.CellCellCell
39 ExocytosisIn order for a cell to get the giant particle out of the cell, it must push the vesicle with the particle to the cell membrane and pop the particle back out of the cell.CellCellCell
47 2. How are osmosis and diffusion different? Diffusion is when particles enter the cell without using energy and without using transport proteins.Osmosis is the exact same thing as diffusion, only osmosis refers to the movement of water.
48 3. What is the difference between active and passive transport?
49 3. What is the difference between active and passive transport? Although both use transport proteins, active transport requires energy and passive transport does not.
50 4. What is the other name for the cell membrane?
51 4. What is the other name for the cell membrane? The phospholipid bilayer
52 Complete the Table Type of Transport Does It Require Transport Proteins?Does It Require Energy?Used for Large or Small Particles?Does It Play a Role in Homeostasis?DiffusionOsmosisFacilitated DiffusionActive TransportEndocytosisExocytosis
53 Complete the Table No Small Yes Water only (small) Large Any size Type of TransportDoes It Require Transport Proteins?Does It Require Energy?Used for Large or Small Particles?Does It Play a Role in Homeostasis?DiffusionNoSmallYesOsmosisWater only (small)Facilitated DiffusionLargeActive TransportAny sizeEndocytosisExocytosis
55 Types of Cellular Transport Does NOT Require EnergyRequires Energy(Passive Transport)(Active Transport)DiffusionOsmosisFacilitated DiffusionAnything that goes through the membrane that requires a transport protein and energy.Anything that goes through the membrane that needs the help of a transport protein, but not energy.Anything that goes through the membraneWater that goes through the membrane