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Copyright © 2008, Zend Technologies Inc. Authentication with Zend Framework Darby Felton PHP Developer, Zend Technologies Zend Framework facilitates development.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008, Zend Technologies Inc. Authentication with Zend Framework Darby Felton PHP Developer, Zend Technologies Zend Framework facilitates development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008, Zend Technologies Inc. Authentication with Zend Framework Darby Felton PHP Developer, Zend Technologies Zend Framework facilitates development of PHP applications requiring authentication by providing a simple, object-oriented API and adapters for popular authentication mechanisms.

2 20 Feb 2008 | Page 2 Topics Overview Introduction to Zend Framework Authentication with Zend_Auth Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId Integrating OpenID with Zend Framework MVC Demonstration Q & A

3 20 Feb 2008 | Page 3 Introduction to Zend Framework What is Zend Framework? The leading open-source PHP framework has a flexible architecture that lets you easily build modern web applications and web services. Open Source  New BSD license is business-friendly  Free for development and distribution  CLA process assures that the code is free of legal issues

4 20 Feb 2008 | Page 4 Introduction to Zend Framework Overview of Zend Framework goals: Extreme simplicity Use-at-will architecture Designed for extensibility Extensive documentation and testing Continuous community involvement

5 20 Feb 2008 | Page 5 Introduction to Zend Framework Zend Framework by the numbers: Component Library – over 195,000 lines of PHP Documentation – thorough reference guide with over 500 code examples and API docs available Quality & Testing – over 4,400 unit tests run under the default test configuration Community - over 390 contributors, over 100 SVN committers Over 3.8 million downloads Supports PHP and later

6 20 Feb 2008 | Page 6 Authentication with Zend_Auth First, let's define authentication for our purposes: Authentication – determining whether an entity is actually what it purports to be, based on some set of credentials We are interested in authenticating requesters of our web applications and services, and this is the primary purpose for which Zend_Auth was designed.

7 20 Feb 2008 | Page 7 Authentication with Zend_Auth Benefits of Zend_Auth: Designed to authenticate the requester's identity against some authentication mechanism (e.g., HTTP Basic/Digest, database table, LDAP) Supports user-defined authentication adapters Available automatic identity persistence Configurable identity storage implementation Provides simple authentication and storage interfaces, easily implemented by developers

8 20 Feb 2008 | Page 8 Authentication with Zend_Auth Zend_Auth implements the Singleton pattern: Exactly one instance of the Zend_Auth class is available at any time, using getInstance() : Why implement the Singleton pattern? Exactly one request per PHP execution lifetime. Operators new and clone are unavailable assert(Zend_Auth::getInstance() instanceof Zend_Auth);

9 20 Feb 2008 | Page 9 Authentication with Zend_Auth Two ways to authenticate using a Zend_Auth adapter:  Indirectly, through Zend_Auth::authenticate()  Directly, through the adapter’s authenticate() method By indirect usage the authenticated identity is automatically saved to persistent storage Direct usage of Zend_Auth adapters enables developers to forgo automatic identity storage

10 20 Feb 2008 | Page 10 Authentication with Zend_Auth What of this "automatic identity persistence"? Successful authentication persists the identity across multiple requests (HTTP is stateless per se) By default, Zend_Auth automatically persists a successfully authenticated identity to the PHP session using Zend_Auth_Storage_Session Override this behavior by passing an object that implements Zend_Auth_Storage_Interface to Zend_Auth::setStorage() If automatic identity storage is undesirable, developers may directly authenticate against a Zend_Auth adapter

11 20 Feb 2008 | Page 11 Authentication with Zend_Auth Implementing Zend_Auth_Storage_Interface: boolean isEmpty() mixed read() void write(mixed $contents) void clear()

12 20 Feb 2008 | Page 12 Authentication with Zend_Auth What constitutes a Zend_Auth adapter? class MyAuthAdapter implements Zend_Auth_Adapter_Interface { /** * Performs an authentication attempt Zend_Auth_Adapter_Exception Zend_Auth_Result */ public function authenticate() { } }

13 20 Feb 2008 | Page 13 Authentication with Zend_Auth When does authenticate() throw an exception? If and only if the authentication query cannot be answered  Authentication service (e.g., DB, LDAP) is unavailable  Cannot open password file Not under normal authentication failure circumstances  Username does not exist in the system  Password is incorrect

14 20 Feb 2008 | Page 14 Authentication with Zend_Auth Authentication results are returned as a Zend_Auth_Result object, which provides: boolean isValid() integer getCode() mixed getIdentity() array getMessages()

15 20 Feb 2008 | Page 15 Authentication with Zend_Auth Using a Zend_Auth adapter indirectly: Authenticated identity is saved automatically $authAdapter = new MyAuthAdapter($username, $password); $auth = Zend_Auth::getInstance(); $result = $auth->authenticate($authAdapter); if (!$result->isValid()) { switch ($result->getCode()) {... } foreach ($result->getMessages() as $message) { echo "$message\n"; } } else { echo 'Welcome, '. $result->getIdentity(). "\n"; }

16 20 Feb 2008 | Page 16 Authentication with Zend_Auth Querying Zend_Auth about the authenticated identity: boolean hasIdentity() mixed|null getIdentity() void clearIdentity() $auth = Zend_Auth::getInstance(); if ($auth->hasIdentity()) { echo 'Hello, '. $auth->getIdentity(); } else { echo 'Hello, anonymous'; } $auth->clearIdentity(); // "log out"

17 20 Feb 2008 | Page 17 Authentication with Zend_Auth Bypass Zend_Auth, directly authenticating against an adapter: No automatic storage of authenticated identity $authAdapter = new MyAuthAdapter($username, $password); $result = $authAdapter->authenticate(); if (!$result->isValid()) { switch ($result->getCode()) {... } foreach ($result->getMessages() as $message) { echo "$message\n"; } } else { echo 'Welcome, '. $result->getIdentity(). "\n"; }

18 20 Feb 2008 | Page 18 Authentication with Zend_Auth Zend_Auth adapters currently available in Zend Framework (Zend_Auth_Adapter_ X ): DbTable: accounts in a database table Digest: file-based digest authentication Http: supports HTTP Basic and Digest InfoCard: works with Microsoft Information Card Ldap: authenticate using LDAP services OpenId : supports OpenID providers

19 20 Feb 2008 | Page 19 Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId What is OpenID? From Wikipedia: OpenID is a decentralized single sign-on system. Using OpenID-enabled sites, web users do not need to remember traditional authentication tokens such as username and password. Instead, they only need to be previously registered on a website with an OpenID "identity provider" (IdP). Since OpenID is decentralized, any website can employ OpenID software as a way for users to sign in; OpenID solves the problem without relying on any centralized website to confirm digital identity.

20 20 Feb 2008 | Page 20 Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId How does OpenID work? We won't discuss the details here...

21 20 Feb 2008 | Page 21 Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId In order to use OpenID, you will need an OpenID provider. (You can also roll your own with ZF.) Many providers exist, and you may already have an OpenID if you use AOL, LiveDoor, LiveJournal, Orange (France Telecom), SmugMug, Technorati, Vox, or WordPress. You can also get an OpenID from ClaimID, myID.net, myOpenID, myVidoop, Verisign, and many others. Learn more about OpenID at

22 20 Feb 2008 | Page 22 Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId Generally, there is not much to using Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId, as it performs all the OpenID-specific heavy lifting for you. Simply instantiate it, passing an OpenID to the constructor (or use setIdentity() ). Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId is unique among the Zend_Auth adapters, however, in that its authenticate() method is called twice:  Redirection to the OpenID provider  Handling response from OpenID provider

23 20 Feb 2008 | Page 23 Integrating OpenID with MVC Zend Framework provides implementations of the Front Controller and Model-View-Controller (MVC) patterns Zend_Auth and its adapters do not require use of these patterns, but it is helpful to see how to integrate authentication with the Zend Framework MVC system TIMTOWTDI, so we present an example Here we use Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId

24 20 Feb 2008 | Page 24 Integrating OpenID with MVC "Bootstrapping" Setup: Web server routes to the bootstrap script Application environment (error_reporting, include_path) Autoloader Load application configuration Configure the Front Controller Dispatch the Front Controller Send the response to the client

25 20 Feb 2008 | Page 25 Integrating OpenID with MVC Routing the web server to the bootstrap script With Apache's mod_rewrite, we use.htaccess To serve resources without ZF, modify the rule: RewriteEngine on RewriteRule ^.*$ index.php RewriteEngine on RewriteRule !\.(js|ico|gif|jpg|png|css)$ index.php

26 20 Feb 2008 | Page 26 Integrating OpenID with MVC What about this index.php ? The only public-facing PHP file Comprised of only two statements: The class encapsulates the application logic run();

27 20 Feb 2008 | Page 27 Integrating OpenID with MVC Operations performed when running the application: public function run() { $this->_setupEnvironment() ->_setupAutoloader() ->_loadConfig() ->_setupFrontController() ->_dispatchFrontController(); return $this; }

28 20 Feb 2008 | Page 28 Integrating OpenID with MVC Setting up the environment: error_reporting and include_path protected function _setupEnvironment() { error_reporting(E_ALL | E_STRICT); set_include_path($this->getPath('library'). PATH_SEPARATOR. get_include_path() ); return $this; }

29 20 Feb 2008 | Page 29 Integrating OpenID with MVC Got autoloading? It's easy with Zend Framework: protected function _setupAutoloader() { require_once 'Zend/Loader.php'; Zend_Loader::registerAutoload(); return $this; }

30 20 Feb 2008 | Page 30 Integrating OpenID with MVC Load the application configuration. Here, the configuration is minimal, including only baseUrl: protected function _loadConfig() { $this->_config = new Zend_Config_Ini( $this->getPath('application'). '/config.ini' ); return $this; }

31 20 Feb 2008 | Page 31 Integrating OpenID with MVC Configure the Front Controller: protected function _setupFrontController() { Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance() ->throwExceptions(true) ->setBaseUrl($this->_config->baseUrl) ->setControllerDirectory( $this->getPath('application'). '/controllers') ->registerPlugin( new My_Controller_Plugin_Dispatch_Check()) ->registerPlugin( new My_Controller_Plugin_View_Layout()) ->returnResponse(true); return $this; }

32 20 Feb 2008 | Page 32 Integrating OpenID with MVC Dispatch the Front Controller and send the response to the client: protected function _dispatchFrontController() { try { Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance() ->dispatch() ->sendResponse(); } catch (Exception $e) { echo $e->getMessage(); } return $this; }

33 20 Feb 2008 | Page 33 Integrating OpenID with MVC All the Action Controllers, which handle application requests, extend a common controller class: My_Controller_Action makes available certain information to the view layer:  Whether the requester is authenticated  A user object that represents the requester  The baseUrl of the application (e.g., for links) class IndexController extends My_Controller_Action

34 20 Feb 2008 | Page 34 Integrating OpenID with MVC My_Controller_Action::preDispatch() : public function preDispatch() { $view = Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker::getStaticHelper( 'viewRenderer')->view; $auth = Zend_Auth::getInstance(); $view->authenticated = $auth->hasIdentity(); $view->user = new My_Model_User( $auth->getIdentity()); $view->baseUrl = Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance()->getBaseUrl(); }

35 20 Feb 2008 | Page 35 Integrating OpenID with MVC The interesting parts of LoginController::processAction() : $authAdapter = new Zend_Auth_Adapter_OpenId($openId); $authAdapterStorage = new Zend_OpenId_Consumer_Storage_File( My_App::getInstance()->getPath('data') ); $authAdapter->setStorage($authAdapterStorage); $auth = Zend_Auth::getInstance(); $result = $auth->authenticate($authAdapter);

36 20 Feb 2008 | Page 36 Demonstration This webinar is accompanied by a demonstration of sample code highlighted in previous slides. The code can serve as a starting point for you to explore authentication with Zend Framework. The webinar slides and sample application code will be made available soon after this presentation.

37 20 Feb 2008 | Page 37 Q & A Stump the chump!

38 Copyright © 2008, Zend Technologies Inc. Thank you!


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