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Chapter 20 CONTROLLING FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE© Prentice Hall, 2002 20-1
Learning Objectives You should learn to:Define organizational performance Explain why measuring organizational performance is important Describe the different organizational performance measures Identify financial control tools used to monitor and measure organizational performance Explain how a management information system can be used as a tool for monitoring and measuring organizational performance © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-2
Learning Objectives (cont.)You should learn to: Describe the balanced scorecard approach to monitoring and measuring organizational performance Tell how benchmarking of best practices can be used for monitoring and measuring organizational performance Discuss the manager’s role in helping organizations achieve a high level of performance © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-3
Organizational PerformanceWhat is Organizational Performance? performance - the end result of an activity organizational performance - accumulated end results of all the organization’s work processes and activities Why is Measuring Organizational Performance Important? managers need to understand the factors that contribute to high organizational performance Better Asset Management asset management - process of acquiring, managing, renewing, and disposing of assets design business models to take advantage of assets © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-4
Organizational Performance (cont.)Why is Measuring Organizational Performance Important? (cont.) Increased Ability to Provide Customer Value - must monitor value obtained by customers customers will seek other sources of supply if value is not obtained Impact on Organizational Reputation - strong reputation leads to greater consumer trust and ability to command premium pricing Improved Measures of Organizational Knowledge organizational knowledge - knowledge created by collaborative information sharing and social interaction leading to appropriate action © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-5
Why Is Measuring Organizational Performance Important?Increased Ability To Provide Customer Value Better Asset Management Impact on Organizational Reputation Improved Measures of Knowledge Why Measure Performance? © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-6
Organizational Performance (cont.)Measures of Organizational Performance Organizational Productivity productivity - overall output of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output output measured by sales revenue input measured by the costs of acquiring and transforming the organizational resources into outputs organizational productivity - a measure of how efficiently employees do their work © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-7
Organizational Performance (cont.)Measures of Organizational Performance (cont.) Organizational Effectiveness - measure of how appropriate organizational goals are and how well an organization is achieving those goals there are different models of effectiveness Industry Rankings - numerous industry and company rankings rankings determined by specific performance measures examples include Fortune, Business Week, Forbes, and Industry Week © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-8
Types Of Performance Control ToolsFinancial Controls Information Controls Performance Control Tools Balanced Scorecard Approach Benchmarking Best Practices Approach © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-9
Tools For Monitoring PerformanceFinancial Controls Traditional Financial Control Measures taken from organization’s main financial statements a number of financial ratios used in organizations liquidity ratios - organization’s ability to meet its current debt obligations leverage ratios - use of debt to finance assets and ability to meet interest payments activity ratios - efficiency of use of firm’s assets profitability ratios - effectiveness with which assets used to generate profits © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-10
Popular Financial Ratios© Prentice Hall, 2002 20-11
Tools For Monitoring Performance (cont.)Financial Controls (cont.) Traditional Financial Controls Measures (cont.) budgets provide quantitative standards against which to measure and compare resource consumption Other Financial Control Measures - increasing popularity Economic Value Added (EVA) - economic value created with the firm’s assets less any capital investments made by the firm in its assets Market Value Added (MVA) - stock market’s estimate of the value of the firm’s past and expected capital investment projects © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-12
Tools For Monitoring Performance (cont.)Information Controls Management Information Systems - used to provide management with needed information on a regular basis provides information, not merely data data - raw, unanalyzed facts information - analyzed and processed data organizes data in a meaningful way can access the information in a reasonable amount of time © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-13
Tools For Monitoring Performance (cont.)Information Controls (cont.) How Are Information Systems Used in Controlling? managers need information about: what is happening what are performance standards acceptable ranges of variation appropriate courses of action © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-14
Tools For Monitoring Performance (cont.)Balanced Scorecard Approach performance measurement tool that examines four areas financial customer internal processes people/innovation/growth assets determine whether goals in each area are being met focus is still on areas that drive the organization’s success scorecards reflect organizational strategies © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-15
Tools For Monitoring Performance (cont.)Benchmarking of Best Practices benchmarking - search for the best practices among other organizations that lead to their superior performance means learning from others used to identify performance gaps and potential areas of improvement look for internal best practices that can be shared best practices frequently already exist within an organization but usually go unidentified and unused © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-16
Steps To Successfully Implementing An Internal Benchmarking Best Practices ProgramNurture best practices on an ongoing basis Create best practices knowledge sharing system Communicate best practices throughout the organization Develop best practices reward and recognition systems Identify best practices throughout the organization Connect best practices to strategies and goals © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-17
Manager’s Role In Achieving High PerformanceHelp Members Make Right Choices During Change provide direction by answering employees’ questions define what change means for employees describe how performance will be evaluated describe tools and support that will be provided Design Performance Management Systems identify appropriate performance measures addresses common performance measurement problems what gets measured gets done address common problems that plague performance measurement © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-18
Common Performance Measuring And Reporting ProblemsConflicting reports Failure to customize No links between performance data and goals Unrelated sources of data Common Problems Overly complex measures Confusing charts and graphs Too much detail © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-19
Manager’s Role In High Performance (cont.)Move From Ideas To Action develop great ideas think of these ideas as things that can actually be done map out the entire implementation process from conception to delivery © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-20
Manager’s Role In Achieving High PerformanceHelp organizational members make right choices during change Design an appropriate performance management system Achieving High Levels of Performance Help employees move from ideas to action © Prentice Hall, 2002 20-21
Objectives Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and.
Organizational Control and Change
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