4IAS 20 - Overview Objective and scope Accounting for government grants Government assistanceDisclosure
5IAS 20 – Objective and Scope Government grant: a form of government assistance; a transfer from a government to an entity that requires compliance with certain conditions related to entity’s operating activities.Government assistance: government action to generate an economic benefit for entities that meet qualifying criteria.
6IAS 20 – Objective and Scope Excludes benefits provided by adjusting taxable profit or loss, or that are determined on the basis of the income tax liability - such as investment tax credits, income tax holidays, accelerated tax depreciation methods and reduced income tax rates
7IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Recognition and Measurement:Recognize a government grant when there is reasonable assurance thatThe grant will be received, andThe entity will comply with the conditions attached to the grant
8IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Two general approaches:Capital approachIncome approach * Apply this one ** Grants from government are not equity financing, they are non-shareholder-related increases in net assets and therefore items of income.
9IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Income approach: recognize government grants in profit or loss in the same periods that the related expenses are recognizedIf for acquisition of assets – on the same basis as the depreciation on the assetsIf related directly to incurring specific expenditures – on the same basis as the expenditures
10IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Presentation of grants related to assets:Companies have a choice – recognize as (a) deferred income or (b) as a reduction in the carrying amount of the related assetExample: Company A receives a $25 grant toward the purchase of new equipment that cost $100; equipment has a five year life and is depreciated on a straight-line basis
11IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Entry when grant received:(a)Dr. Cash 25Cr. Deferred government grant 25Or(b)Cr. Equipment 25
12IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Entry as asset is used:(a)Dr. Depreciation expenseCr. Accumulated depreciation 20Dr. Deferred government grant 5Cr. Depreciation expense/grant income 5Or(b)Dr. Depreciation expenseCr. Accumulated depreciation 15Depreciation: ($100 - $25) ÷ 5 = 15
13IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Presentation of grants related to income:Example: Company B receives a government grant equal to 10% of the payroll costs incurred. Payroll costs incurred are $100.Entry when payroll costs incurred:Dr. Grant receivable 10Cr. Wages expense/grant income 10
14IAS 20 – Accounting for Government Grants Repayment of grants:If grant becomes repayable – treat as a change in estimateIf related to an asset: cumulative amount of additional depreciation that would have been recognized to date is recognized in P&LIf related to income: any necessary adjustments are made to current year profit or loss
15IAS 20 – Government Assistance Grants exclude assistance that cannot reasonably be valued, and transactions between the government and the entity that are in the normal course of business.Other assistance (e.g., guarantee of loan, significant sales) may be of interest to financial statement readers if benefits are significant and recurring
16IAS 20 Disclosure Three types: Accounting policy for grants and their presentationNature and extent of grants recognized, and information about other forms of assistance that have been beneficialInformation about contingencies or conditions not yet met related to assistance recognized
18Looking AheadIAS 20 – part of short-term convergence project with FASB. IAS 20 shortcomings:1. Inconsistent with the conceptual framework (deferred credits do not meet the definition of a liability)2. Option allowed now understates an entity’s assets, reducing comparability of the entity’s financial statements (i.e., option to deduct grant from asset acquired)
19Looking AheadWork on amending IAS 20 set aside pending outcome of related standards, such as IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and Conceptual Framework Project
20End-of-Chapter Practice 14-1 Iota Inc. receives a $100 government grant to be applied against the construction of a new building. The building is accounted for using the cost model, has an initial cost of $500, a useful life of 25 years and $0 residual value.Instructions(a) Prepare entries to account for the acquisition of the building and receipt of the government grant on Day 1, assuming Iota presents the grant as deferred income, and then assuming it is presented as a reduction of the asset’s cost.(b) Prepare the entry to record depreciation expense at the end of the first year of operations, as well as any other adjusting entries required under each assumption in (a) above.(c) In what respects will the statement of financial position and income statement differ under the two accounting presentations? Does it matter that they are different? Why?
21End-of Chapter Practice 14-2 Refer to 14-1 above. Assume that after four years of operating in the new building, Iota Inc. decides to transfer its operations to a larger municipality. The original $100 grant is required to be repaid if Iota does not remain in the building for a minimum of seven years.Instructions(a) Prepare the entry(ies) to recognize the grant repayment liability at the end of year 4, assuming Iota recognized the grant originally as deferred income.(b) Prepare the entry(ies) to recognize the grant repayment liability at the end of year 4, assuming Iota recognized the grant originally as a reduction of the asset’s cost.
22End-of Chapter Practice 14-3 Chi Corp. agreed to locate a new call center in an economically disadvantaged area in return for specific government assistance. The government provided $200 funding to a local college to bring the general education level of a number of residents to an acceptable minimum, $25 toward the cost of a four-week call center employee training program delivered by Chi Corp., and a $50 grant to offset the higher travel and administrative costs to be incurred by Chi over a five-year period. This grant is repayable at the rate of $10 per year for each year less than five years that Chi does not operate in the area.In addition, Chi Corp. is eligible for a 10% wage rebate at the end of each year in which an average of 20 people or more are employed at the operation. The company expects to have more than 23 employees on staff at any time and to operate in this location for a minimum of eight years.Assume the operation opens on July 2, 2009, at which time the $50 grant is received. The employee training program takes place from July 5 to August 3 and Chi receives the $25 grant in early September. The payroll for the first six months for the 27 full-time employees hired is $400.Instructions(a) Prepare all entries related to government assistance that need to be made by Chi Corp. from July 1 to December 31, 2009, Chi’s fiscal year end. Identify any situations where there are alternatives.(b) Identify the government assistance disclosures that are required for Chi’s December 31, 2009 financial statements.
23End-of Chapter Practice 14-4 In this chapter, flag icons identify area where there are GAAP differences between IFRS requirements and national standards.InstructionsAccess the website(s) identified on the inside back cover of this book, and prepare a concise summary of the differences that are flagged throughout the chapter material.