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Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–1 Chapter Eleven Gender and Sexuality.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–1 Chapter Eleven Gender and Sexuality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–1 Chapter Eleven Gender and Sexuality

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–2 Did You Know That… Some people feel trapped in the body of the opposite gender by a mistake of nature? The gender gap in math skills that traditionally favored boys has narrowed considerably in recent years? Women leaders tend to be more democratic in their leadership style than their male counterparts?

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–3 Did You Know That… (cont.) Only women have a sex organ whose sole known function is to produce sexual pleasure? The male sex hormone testosterone energizes sexual drives in women as well as men? College women are much more likely to be raped by someone they know than by a stranger?

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–4 Module 11.1 Gender Identity and Gender Roles

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–5 Module 11.1 Preview Questions What accounts for gender identity? What are the major theories of gender-role behavior? What gender differences exist in cognitive abilities, personality, and leadership style?

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–6 Sex and Gender Sex: Biological division between males and females. –Determined by chromosomal pattern. Gender: Psychosocial concept that distinguishes masculinity from femininity. Gender Roles: Culturally expected behaviors for men and women. Gender Identity: The psychological experience of being a male or female.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–7 Gender Identity Usually established by age three Unclear what determines gender identity. –Biological influences –Rearing influences Transexualism: Mismatch between one’s gender identity and one’s chromosomal and anatomic sex.

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–8

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–9 Transsexuals May undergo gender reassignment surgery. Cause is debated. –Sex hormones? –Genes? –Environmental factors?

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–10 How Are Gender Roles Acquired? Social-Cognitive Theory: Roles are learned through observation and reinforcement. Gender-Schema Theory: Children form mental representations of masculinity and femininity. Evolutionary Theory: Genetic predispositions may shape gender-typed behavior. Sociocultural Theory: Roles are cultural adaptations.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–11 Figure 11.1: Gender-Role Identification

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–12 Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities Overall, no differences in general intelligence, ability to learn, or problem solving ability. Boys more likely to have problems in reading. –E.g., dyslexia Differences on average: –Girls better in verbal, language skills –Boys better in math, visual-spatial skills

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–13 Figure 11.2: Gender Differences in Abilities

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–14 Other Gender Differences Personality differences Variations in leadership styles

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–15

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–16 Module 11.2 Sexual Response and Behavior

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–17 Module 11.2 Preview Questions What are the phases of the sexual response cycle? What are the origins of sexual orientation? How do attitudes toward homosexuality vary across cultures? What are paraphilias? How can we protect ourselves from sexually transmitted diseases?

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–18 Figure 11.3: Frequency of Marital Sexual Relations During the Past Year

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–19 Figure 11.4: The Sexual Response Cycle

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–20 Sexual Orientation The direction of one’s erotic attraction and romantic interests. –Heterosexual –Homosexual –Bisexual Kinsey argued that orientation is best represented as a continuum.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–21 Origins of Sexual Orientation Freud: –Heterosexuality develops from “normal” identification with the same-sex parent. –Homosexuality develops from “overidentification” with the opposite-sex parent. Genetic contributions Hormonal influence?

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–22

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–23 Culture and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Attitudes vary widely across cultures –Ranges from condemnation to acceptance Homophobia: Persistent, irrational fear of gay males or lesbians.

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–24 Paraphilias Psychological disorder involving atypical or deviant patterns of sexual attraction. Examples –Fetishism –Transvestism –Voyeurism –Exhibitionism –Pedophilia –Sexual masochism

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–25 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Examples –HIV/AIDS –Genital herpes (HSV-2) –HPVs –Chlamydia –Syphilis –Gonorrhea 15 million new cases of STDs per year in the U.S.

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–26 Avoiding STDs Be careful in choice of sex partners. Avoid multiple partners, especially partners who themselves have multiple partners. Communicate your concerns. Avoid engaging in sexual contact with anyone with a sore or blister around the genitals. Avoid unprotected sexual contact.

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–27 Avoiding STDs Obtain a medical evaluation if you suspect you may have been exposed to a STD. Get regular medical checkups to detect and treat disorders you may not be aware you have. When in doubt, abstain.

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–28 Module 11.3 Sexual Dysfunctions

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–29 Module 11.3 Preview Questions What are sexual dysfunctions? What are the causes of sexual dysfunctions? What are the general aims of sex therapy?

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–30

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–31 Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Desire Disorders –Hypoactive sexual disorder –Sexual aversion disorder Sexual Arousal Disorders –Male erectile disorder –Female sexual arousal disorder Orgasmic Disorders –Female/Male orgasmic disorder –Premature ejaculation

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–32 Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions Biological causes –Neurological and circulatory conditions –Medications, hormones Psychosocial causes –Influences from childhood –Relationship problems –Performance anxiety

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–33 Sex Therapy Relatively brief, problem-focused therapeutic techniques for treating sexual dysfunctions Various techniques –Removal of pressures to perform –Sensate-focus exercises –Directed masturbation –Stop-start method for PE –Biological therapies

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–34 Module 11.4 Application: Combating Rape and Sexual Harassment

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–35 Module 11.4 Preview Questions What steps can we take individually and as a society to combat rape and sexual harassment?

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–36 Rape and Sexual Harassment Rape: The use or threat of force to compel a person into having sexual intercourse. Statutory Rape: Sexual intercourse with a person under the legal age of consent, even if person is a willing partner. Sexual Harassment: Any act involving unwelcome sexual comments, jokes, overtures, demands for sexual favors, or outright sexual contact.

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–37

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–38 How Common is Rape? Estimates that 150,000 women raped each year in U.S. –67,000 suffer attempted rapes % of college women surveyed reported had been raped. –10-20% of H.S. girls reported had been physically or sexually assaulted by dating partner. 1 in 10 rape survivors are males.

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–39 How Common Is Sexual Harassment? Fewer than 1 in 20 women how experience sexual harassment file formal complaints. About 50% of women believe have been sexually harassed in school or on the job. 80% of surveyed teenage boys and girls reported being sexually harassed by peers.

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–40 Figure 11.5: Relationships Between Rapists and Their Victims

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–41 Acquaintance Rape Most rapes not committed by strangers % of women report acquaintance rape. Myths about rape: –“No” means “yes” –Woman has a secret desire to be raped or overpowered. –Those accompanying men home or who frequent singles bars or attend parties are “just asking for it.”

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–42 Motives Rape –Power –Anger –Revenge –Intentional cruelty Sexual harassment –Domination and control –Social control –Lack of awareness

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–43 Socialization and Rapists About 1 in 13 college men reported committing or attempted rape. Stereotypical messages promoting rape. –Domination and power in play, sports –Masculinity = sexual assertiveness –Dating seen as a chance to “score,” not an opportunity to get to know partner. Role of alcohol.

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–44 Preventing Rape: Societal Level Educational programs for young men Rape-prevention workshops Public policy Clear messages Awareness of link between alcohol and rape

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–45 Preventing Rape: What Can You Do? At home and away –Secure locks –No first name in phone book, in mail box –Good lighting –Avoid walking alone at night –Check credentials of service people –Lock car doors, windows up –Carry a loud alarm –Have keys handy

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–46 Preventing Rape: What Can You Do? Dating –Meet dates in public place –Remain sober on dates –Establish clear limits in dating –Be firm when refusing sex –Trust your feelings

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–47 Resisting Sexual Harassment: What Can You Do? Adopt a professional attitude. Avoid meeting with the harasser behind close doors. Keep a journal. Put the harasser on notice. Speak to supervisor or person response for handling sexual harassment complaints. Consider legal actions.


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